Society News

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 23 Jun, 2020
Updated: 04 Jul, 2020

Employment Schemes In Focus

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan (PM-GKRA), 2020

  • To empower and provide livelihood opportunities in areas/villages witnessing large number of returnee migrant workers affected by the devastating COVID-19
  • This Abhiyaan of 125 days, will work in mission mode, will focus on districts with a large concentration of returnee migrant workers in 6 states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.
  • Public works to be undertaken during this campaign will have a resource envelope of Rs. 50,000 crores.
  • Ministry of Rural Development is the nodal Ministry for this campaign and the campaign will be implemented in close coordination with the State Governments. 
  • Central Nodal Officers of the rank of Joint Secretary and above will be appointed to oversee the effective and timely implementation of various schemes in the identified districts. 

The Urban Learning Internship Program (TULIP)

  • A program for providing internship opportunities to fresh graduates in all Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and Smart Cities across the country
  • Implemented through a partnership between Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) and AICTE.
  • At the State level, TULIP will be supported by the Urban Development departments in providing a clear roadmap for the ULBs/smart cities to adopt TULIP in their respective organisations.
  • Eligibility : Open to Indian Citizens who graduate from an undergraduate program (both AICTE and non-AICTE affiliated) can apply within 18 months from graduating. Indian Students whose results have been declared and have a passing percentage can apply
  • Certificate will be given on course completion on TULIP portal. Stipened to be decided by respective ULB/smart city

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan launched on June 20 to boost employment and livelihood opportunities for migrant workers returning to villages, in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak
    • Karnataka Chief Minister B.S. Yediyurappa asking for PMGKY extension
    • TULIP - Centre launches internship scheme for 25,000 graduates

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 23 Jun, 2020
Updated: 08 Aug, 2020

Poverty upliftment initiatives

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Package (PM-GKP)

* Not to be confused with Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY), which was launched in 2016, and it allowed citizens to declare black money at 50% tax rate.

Announced in March, 2020, finance minister announced Rs 1.70 Lakh Crore relief package under Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana. Following are the components of scheme:

  • Insurance
    • Scheme for health workers fighting COVID-19 in Government Hospitals and Health Care Centres.
    • Compensation of 50 lakh to any health professional who meets an accident while treating a COVID patient
  • PM Garib Kalyan Ann (अन्न) Yojana
    • 5kg of food grains per person, and 1 kg of pulse and chana per family for free to anyone till NOvember.
      • Initially it was limited to those who were beneficiaries under the National Food Security Act (NFSA) .
    • 80 crore individuals would get double their entitlement for free of cost till August. Extended till November
    • The scheme will not be replacing any other food scheme.
  • Cash transfer
    • PMJDY women account holders to get 500 for next 3 months
    • Free gas cylinders to 8 crore poor families till September months under Ujjwala
    • 24% contribution to EPFO for 3 months for those earning less than 15000
    • EPF accounts to allow non-refundable advance of 75 percent of the amount or three months of the wages, whichever is lower
  • Divyang
    • Rs 1000 to divyangs, senior citizens, aged widows under National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)
  • Agriculture
    • Payment of 2000 to farmers under PM-KISAN
    • Increase in MNREGA wage to Rs 202 , and additional Rs 2,000 benefit annually to a worker

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Extension of PM Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana, and free gas cylinder till November
  • Aug, 20
    • As many as 11 States and Union Territories did not carry out any distribution at all under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY) in July, the first month of the extended scheme

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 26 Jun, 2020
Updated: 28 Jul, 2020

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment (MGNREGA)

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005

Enacted in 2005, the Act guarantees the "right to work" to by providing 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every rural household whose adult members are willing to do unskilled manual work.

Salient features of MGNREGA:

  • Gram Panchayat after due verification will issue a Job Card within 15 days of application
  • Employment will be given within 15 days of application for work, if it is not then daily unemployment allowance as per the Act, has to be paid. Liability of payment of unemployment allowance is of the States
  • Work should ordinarily be provided within 5 km radius ofthe village. In case work is provided beyond 5 km, extrawages of 10% are payable to meet additionaltransportation and living expenses.
  • At least one-third beneficiaries shall be women
  • Funding
    • Centre to bear entire cost of wages of unskilled labours, 75% cost for material and wages of skilled/semi-skilled labours (states to bear rest 25%), and administrative expenses
    • States to provide unemployment allowance payable in case the StateGovernment cannot provide wage employment on time. States should also provide administrative expenses of State Employment Guarantee Council.
    • Districts to have dedicated accounts for MGNREGA funds.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Record job generation in Odisha’s Nabarangpur under MGNREGA
  • July, 20
    • 8.4 lakh poor households have completed at least 80 days of the 100-day limit for work under the MGNREGS and 1.4 lakh among those have completed the full quota
    • 12 districts have crossed annual NREGA work in 4 months.

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 27 Jun, 2020
Updated: 11 Jul, 2020

Bonded Labour

Bonded Labour System Abolition Act of 1976

  • The Act provides for the abolition of bonded labour system with a view to preventing the economic and physical exploitation of the weaker sections of the people
  • The Act clearly defines a bonded labour.
  • An aggrieved person can approach District Magistrate who is chairman of Vigilance Committee constitute under the Act and has been entrusted with certain duties and responsibilities for implementing the provisions of the Act
  • Matter can also be brought to notice of the Sub Divisional Magistrate of the area or any other person who is a of the Vigilance Committee of District or Sub-division.
  • Upto 3 years of imprisonment, and fine for offenders

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Supreme Court asks Bihar to not ignore bonded labour in ongoing pandemic

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 27 Jun, 2020
Updated: 21 Jul, 2020

Employment Security

Employee Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO)

  • EPFO provides Universal Social Security Coverage on a mandatory basis by way of Provident Fund, Pension and Life Insurance for all workers of the country.
  • It is a statutory body established by the Employees' Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952
  • Employee Provident Fund (EPF) - EPF, a retirement benefit scheme, is looked after and maintained by the Employees Provident Fund Organisation of India (EPFO).
    • Any registered company which has more than 20 employees has to get registered with the EPFO. 
    • EPF is available for all salaried employees (mandatory for those earning less than 15,000).
    • Under the EPF scheme, both the employee and the employer make an equal contribution towards the scheme; and the employee gets this amount on retirement with interest.
    • Both employee and employer make 12% contribution, however, 3.67% of employer's contribution is diverted to Employee’s Pension Scheme (EPS) account

National Pension System (NPS)

  • NPS is a pension cum investment scheme launched by Government of India to provide old age security . NPS is a voluntary contribution scheme that is market-linked and managed by professional fund managers.
  • Regulated by Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).
  • National Pension System Trust (NPST) established by PFRDA is the registered owner of all assets under NPS.
  • NPS allows individuals to make systematic investments via either of the following two accounts
    • Tier-I account:
      • Subscriber is issued a PRAN (Permanent Retirement Account Number).
      • Allows withdrawal of 25% of the accumulated corpus after 3 years for specific purposes
      • It falls under the E-E-T (Exempt-Exempt-Tax) regime, in which the contributions and gains made are exempt from tax, but the entire corpus on withdrawal is liable to tax, rather than just the gains made.
    • Tier-II accounts
      • Tier 2 is a voluntary account with flexible withdrawal and exit regulations. A Tier 2 account, can be opened only if you have an existing Tier 1 account and a PRAN number.
      • The minimum deposit one needs to make for a Tier II account is Rs. 250.
      • The contributions don’t carry any tax exemptions and withdrawal is liable to tax

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • PM-GKP, 24% contribution to EPFO for 3 months for those earning less than 15000
  • July, 20
    • NPS sees 30% increase in subscribers during pandemic

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 03 Jul, 2020
Updated: 21 Jul, 2020

Migrants

Acts

  • Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service), Act, 1979
    • All establishments hiring inter-state migrants to be registered, and contractors who recruit such workmen be licensed.
    • Contractors are obligated to provide details of all workmen to the relevant authority. Contractors are also required to ensure regular payment, non-discrimination, provisioning of suitable accommodation, free medical facilities and protective clothing for the workmen.
    • Migrant workmen are entitled to similar wages and benefits as other workmen
  • Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996
    • Centre and states to constitute Building and Other Construction Workers’ Advisory Committee
    • Every employer to register his establishment in sixty days
    • Building workers are entitled to benefits provided by Board from its fund.
    • Payment of pension to the beneficiaries who have completed the age of sixty years
    • Fix working hours, with wages for overtime, and medical expenses for treatment of major ailments of a beneficiary
    • Centre to appoint Director-General of Inspection responsible for laying down the standards of inspection

Migration statistics

  • According to the Census of India, 2011, more than 450 million Indians (37%) are internal migrants who change their residence within a country’s national borders. About 30% of the migrants are youth aged 15-29 years and another 15 million are children
  • Women migrants are less represented in regular jobs and more likely to be self-employed than non-migrant women.
  • Surat at 58% has the highest percentage of migrant labour population, followed by Mumbai and Delhi
  • Illegal migrants can be imprisoned or deported under the Foreigners Act, 1946 and the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920. 

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 07 Jul, 2020
Updated: 07 Jul, 2020

Domestic Workers

Code on Social Security Bill, 2019

  • Introduced in the Lok Sabha by the Minister of State for Labour and Employment, but not yet passed.
  • It replaces nine laws related to social security, including the Employees’ Provident Fund Act, 1952, the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, and the Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008.
  • Social security schemes
    • Under the Code, the central government may notify various social security schemes for the benefit of workers.  These include an Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) Scheme, an Employees’ Pension Scheme (EPS), and an Employees’ Deposit Linked Insurance (EDLI) Scheme. 
    • The government may also notify: (i) an Employees’ State Insurance (ESI) Scheme to provide sickness, maternity, and other benefits, (ii) gratuity to workers on completing five years of employment (or lesser than five years in certain cases such as death), (iii) maternity benefits to women employees, (iv) cess for welfare of building and construction workers, and (v) compensation to employees and their dependants in the case of occupational injury or disease. 
    • In addition, the central or state government may notify specific schemes for gig workers, platform workers, and unorganised workers to provide various benefits, such as life and disability cover. 
      • Gig workers refer to workers outside of the traditional employer-employee relationship (e.g., freelancers).  Platform workers are workers who access other organisations or individuals using online platforms and earn money by providing them with specific services.  Unorganised workers include home-based and self-employed workers. 
    •  

Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008

  • To provide social security relating to life and disability cover, health and maternity benefits, old age protection to the unorganised workers including domestic workers
  • Constitutes a National Social Security Board  and State Social Security Board to perform function assigned under the Act

Domestic Workers

  • As per NSSO statistics 2011-12, there are 39 lakh people employed as domestic workers
  • draft National Policy on Domestic Workers : Ministry of Labour & Employment is considering to formulate a National Policy on Domestic Workers which is in the draft stage. Salient features to include registration under existing legislation, minimum wages, social security, and union formation.
  • Domestic Workers Sector Skills Council - Under Ministry of Skills Development to enable professionalization of domestic workers and enable their career progression.

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Domestic workers struggle to make ends meet

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 07 Jul, 2020
Updated: 07 Jul, 2020

Labour Codes

As part of its reform initiatives, the labour ministry has decided to amalgamate 44 labour laws into four codes - on wages, industrial relations, social securityand safety, and health and working conditions

Code on Wages Act, 2019

It seeks to regulate wage and bonus payments in all employments where any industry, trade, business, or manufacture is carried out. The Code replaces the following four laws: (i) the Payment of Wages Act, 1936, (ii) the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, (iii) the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965, and (iv) the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.

  • Central government will fix a floor wage, taking into account living standards of workers.  Further, it may set different floor wages for different geographical area. The minimum wages decided by the central or state governments must be higher than the floor wage.
  • Central or state government may fix the number of hours that constitute a normal working day.  In case employees work in excess of a normal working day, they will be entitled to overtime wage, which must be at least twice the normal rate of wages. 
  • Wages may be deducted on grounds defined in Act, but should never exceed 50% of the total wages
  • The Code prohibits gender discrimination in matters related to wages and recruitment of employees for the same work or work of similar nature
  • Central and state governments will constitute advisory boards
  • Maximum penalty of three months and fine upto one lakh rupees

Code on Social Security Bill, 2019

  • Introduced in the Lok Sabha by the Minister of State for Labour and Employment, but not yet passed.
  • It replaces nine laws related to social security, including the Employees’ Provident Fund Act, 1952, the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, and the Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008.
  • Social security schemes
    • Under the Code, the central government may notify various social security schemes for the benefit of workers.  These include an Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) Scheme, an Employees’ Pension Scheme (EPS), and an Employees’ Deposit Linked Insurance (EDLI) Scheme. 
    • The government may also notify: (i) an Employees’ State Insurance (ESI) Scheme to provide sickness, maternity, and other benefits, (ii) gratuity to workers on completing five years of employment (or lesser than five years in certain cases such as death), (iii) maternity benefits to women employees, (iv) cess for welfare of building and construction workers, and (v) compensation to employees and their dependants in the case of occupational injury or disease. 
    • In addition, the central or state government may notify specific schemes for gig workers, platform workers, and unorganised workers to provide various benefits, such as life and disability cover. 
      • Gig workers refer to workers outside of the traditional employer-employee relationship (e.g., freelancers).  Platform workers are workers who access other organisations or individuals using online platforms and earn money by providing them with specific services.  Unorganised workers include home-based and self-employed workers. 

Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008

  • To provide social security relating to life and disability cover, health and maternity benefits, old age protection to the unorganised workers including domestic workers
  • Constitutes a National Social Security Board  and State Social Security Board to perform function assigned under the Act

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Domestic workers struggle to make ends meet

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 17 Jul, 2020
Updated: 17 Jul, 2020

Skill Development Initiatives

National Skill Development Mission

  • Launched in 2015, under Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship
  • Seven sub-missions have been proposed initially to act as building blocks for achieving overall objectives of the Mission. They are: (i) Institutional Training, (ii) Infrastructure, (iii) Convergence, (iv) Trainers, (v) Overseas Employment, (vi) Sustainable Livelihoods, (vii) Leveraging Public Infrastructure.
  • The Mission has been developed to create convergence across sectors and States in terms of skill training activities
  • Key institutional mechanisms for achieving the objectives of the Mission have been divided into three tiers- Governing Council for policy guidance at apex level, a Steering Committee, and a Mission Directorate (along with an Executive Committee) as the executive arm of the Mission.
  • Mission Directorate will be supported by three other institutions:
    1. National Skill Development Agency (NSDA)
    2. National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC)
    3. Directorate General of Training (DGT)

National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC)

  • Set up by Ministry of Finance as Public Private Partnership (PPP) model, with government owning 49% shares
  • Its objective is to enable support system which focuses on quality assurance, information systems and train the trainer academies either directly or through partnerships
  • NSDC aims to promote skill development by creating and funding large, quality and for-profit vocational institutions
  • Initiatives
    • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) 
      • Flagship scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) implemented by National Skill Development Corporation.
      • Launched in 2015, India's largest skill certification scheme.
      • Training and Assessment fees are completely paid by the Government
      • Components
        1. Short Term Training: For school/college dropouts and unemployed individuals. Training is provided according to the National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF), and training is provided up to NSQF level 5. Has provision for assistance in training placement.
        2. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL):  Individuals with prior learning experience or skills shall be assessed and certified under the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) 
        3. Monitoring through the Skills Development Management System (SDMS). 
    • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra
      • Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship ( MSDE ) intends to establish visible and aspirational Model Training Centres ( MTCs ) in every district of the country.
      • NSDC is the implementation agency for the project. NSDC provides concessional loan funding per centre, up to 75% of the project investment
      • Each PMKK is assured a training mandate for three years

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Speaking on the occasion of the World Youth Skills Day and the fifth anniversary of "Skill India Mission", Prime Minister Narendra Modi said the youth should skill, reskill and upskill themselves