International Relations News

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 19 Jun, 2020
Updated: 04 Jul, 2020

Indian Border

Border Area Development Programme (BADP) 

  • Implemented by  Department of Border Management, Ministry of Home Affairs through state governments
  • BADP is a Core Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS). following a funding pattern of 90:10 for north-eastern states and Jammu and Kashmir; 60:40 for remaining border states; and 100% for Ladakh
  • Guidelines of BADP, the geographical areas within which the BADP is implemented; allocation of funds, modalities of execution of Works/projects etc. will be laid down by an Empowered Committee of BADP constituted under the Chairmanship of the Secretary, Department of Border Management, Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Of the total funding of BADP in a financial year, 10% will be for incentivising, 10% for states along Indo-China border. Rest 80% funds will be divided in 40:50 ratio, with 40% going to north-eastern states, and 60% to rest
  • Projects for developing infrastructure in strategically important villages/towns (as identified by Border Guarding Forces) will be given priority. Within this 0-10 km area, census villages, semi-urban and urban areas identified by BGFs as ‘strategic villages/towns’ shall be given highest priority
  • Border Guarding Forces (BGFs) will be co-opted as part of decision making process at all levels

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has decided to spend 10% funds of a Centrally sponsored scheme only on projects in Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Sikkim

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 27 Jun, 2020
Updated: 08 Jul, 2020

National Security Council

National Security Council (NSC)

  • National Security Council is an executive government agency established in 1998, is tasked with advising the Prime Minister's Office on matters of national security and strategic interest.
  • NSC is headed by Prime Minister, with Ministers of Home Affairs, Defence, External Affairs and Finance as members. NSA serves as secretary to the council
  • The three tier structure of the NSC comprises:
    • Strategic Policy Group (SPG)
      • National Security Advisor chairs the meetings of the SPG
      • Cabinet secretary coordinates implementation of the group's decisions by Union Ministries and Departments, and State Governments.
    • National Security Advisory Board (NSAB) - NSAB is a multi-disciplinary body. It undertakes long-term analysis and provides perspectives on issues of national security
    • National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) - NSCS is an executive body under Allocation of Business rules, and serves as secretariat to NSC

National Security Adviser (NSA)

NSA is the principal advisor on national security matters to the prime minister. Bodies headed by NSA:

  • China Study Group (CSG)
    • CSG is an informal group constituted in 1997
    • It comprises the Cabinet Secretary, Defence Secretary, Home Secretary, the Army chief, and the Director of Intelligence Bureau, among others.
  • Defence Planning Committee (DPC)
    • Set up in 2018, its member include all three Service Chiefs, Defence Secretary, Expenditure Secretary, Foreign Secretary
    • Chief of Integrated Defence Staff, who is also the Member Secretary.
  • National Technical Research Organisation
    • It is the technical intelligence gathering agency of India under NSA
    • It is a statutory body under Intelligence Organisations (Restriction of Rights) Act, 1985, and enjoys similar powers as the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW).
    • Provides high quality imagery intelligence (IMINT) and signals intelligence (SIGINT) capabilities

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) to analyse the satellite images shared by foreign researchers on social media
    • China Study Group (CSG), headed by National Security Advisor Ajit Doval, met on Saturday to discuss the prevailing situation along the LAC

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 29 Jun, 2020
Updated: 01 Aug, 2020

Indian Aircrafts And Ships

Fighter jets

  • MiG-29 / Baaz
    • Russian origin. Twin engine, single seater with a speed up to Mach 1.7
  • SU-30 MKI :
    • Russian origin. Licenced production done by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
    • Twin seater, twin engine, carrying a variety of medium-range guided air to air missiles.
    • It has a maximum speed of 2 Mach with a single in-flight range of 3,000 km
  • Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas
    • Tejas is a 4+ generation, supersonic, highly maneuverable, multi-role, smallest and lightest aircraft in its class 
    • Designed and developed by DRDO, it can carry beyond visual range weapons
    • Tejas has a speed up to mach1.2 at low level and mach 1.8 at higher altitudes
  • Mirage 2000 / Vajra
    • French origin and maintained by HAL
    • Single engine fourth-generation jet fighter, and has maximum speed of Mach 2.5
  • MiG-21 Bison
    • First supersonic jet aircraft ever, the MiG 21 has a single seater cockpit with maximum speed of 1.05 mach 
  • SEPECAT Jaguar / Shamsher
    • French and British origin. Twin-engine, single-seater (IAF) ground attack aircraft 
    • Only the Indian Air Force is currently using the upgraded Jaguar in active duty.
    • Jaguars can accurately deliver heavy bomb loads at long ranges at low altitudes, but is incapable of flying high altitudes with heavy payload
    • Licenced production done by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
  • Rafale
    • French origin. Twin engine, single and double seater.
    • Rafale has a speed up to mach1.1 at low level and mach 1.8 at higher altitudes and has mid air refueled capability
    • India will be integrating European-made SCALP and Meteor prolonged-array beyond visible selection (BVR) air-to-air missile into Rafale 
    • The aircraft are equipped with two standoff weapons- Mica air-to-air missile with 70 km range, Meteor air-to-air missiles, with a range of over 100 km, and Scalp air-to-ground missiles, with a range of 300 km.


  • Ka-226T : Russian origin. Light weight, twin engine utility helicopter
  • AH-64E Apache : US origin. India contracted 22 Apache helicopters and 15 Chinook helicopters from Boeing through the Foreign Military Sales programme of the U.S. government in September 2015 under a $3 billion deal. Boeing’s joint venture in Hyderabad, Tata Boeing Aerospace Limited, has been producing aero-structures for the AH-64 Apache helicopter for both the U.S. Army and international customers

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 30 Jun, 2020
Updated: 11 Aug, 2020

Extremism And Insurgency


Nagaland Peace Accord

  • Ongoing agreement between government of India and National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) to end insurgency
  • The accord was first signed in 1975 with Naga National Council (NNC) to give up arms. Some senior leaders rebelled and formed their own groups
  • In 1997, a ceasefire agreement was signed between NSCN(I-M) and government
  • In 2015, Nagaland Peace Accord was signed, the talks have since then stalled, with NSCN asking for greater share of land, separate constitution and flag.

[In News]

  • Aug, 20
    • Naga peace talks hits a road bump with NSCN-IM wanting to remove interlocutor.

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 07 Jul, 2020
Updated: 10 Aug, 2020

Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF)

Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) refers to seven security forces under the authority of Ministry of Home Affairs.

  1. Assam Rifles (AR)
  2. Border Security Force (BSF)
    • BSF came into existence in 1965 to man the borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh
    • BSF is India's "First Line of Defence", with moto "Jeevan Paryant Kartavya". BSF can even hold ground is less threatened situations as long as main attack does not develop into something outside the domain of BSF
    • BSF also acts as the representative of the Indian government in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping missions
    • The peacetime tasks include preventing smuggling and any other illegal activity, and unauthorised intrusions
  3. Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
    • CISF came into existence in 1969, established under an Act of Parliament, “Central Industrial Security Force Act, 1968 
    • CISF provides security to the strategic establishment, including the Department of Space, the Department of Atomic Energy, the Airports, the Delhi Metro, the ports, the historical monuments and the basic areas of Indian economy such as petroleum and natural gas, electricity, coal, steel and mining.
    • After the Mumbai terrorist attack on November 2008, the mandate of the force has been broadened to provide direct security cover to private sector also
    • CISF is the only force with a customized and dedicated fire wing.
  4. Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
  5. Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
    • Patrols entire stretch of Indo-China border, from Karakoram pass in Jammu & Kashmir to Jechap La in Arunachal Pradesh.
    • ITBP replaced Assam Rifles in Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh in 2004
  6. National Security Guard (NSG)
  7. Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)
    • SSB  is India's primary border patrol organization along borders of Nepal and Bhutan.


[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Prime Minister Modi's visit to Leh
    • Women officers can now get Permanent Commission and command postings in all services other than combat
  • Aug, 20
    • CISF to probe ‘Are you Indian?’ taunt at DMK MP Kanimozhi’s complaint by paramilitary agency at the Chennai airport

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 08 Jul, 2020
Updated: 10 Aug, 2020

Defence Bodies And Contracts


Defence Acquisitions Council (DAC)

  • Set up in 2001 for defence procurement, based on Group of Ministers recommendation on 'Reforming the National Security System'
  • Chaired by Defence Minister. Key members include Minister of State for Defence, Chiefs of three bodies, Defence Secretary, Secretary Defence Research & Development, Secretary Defence Production
  • Acquisition proposals are divided into 'Buy', 'Buy & Make' and 'Make'
  • Does field trial evaluation
  • Recent Initiatives
    • June, 20 - Deals approval worth 38900 crores for - additional Mig-29, Su-30 MKI; Pinaka ammunition, armoured vehicle BMP armament upgrades, Software Defined Radio; Long Range Land Attack Missile Systems of over 1000km range, and Astra Beyond Visual Range air-to-air missiles


draft 'Defence Production & Export Promotion Policy (DPEPP) 2020'

The DPEPP 2020 is envisaged as overarching guiding document of MoD to provide a focused, structured and significant thrust to defence production capabilities of the country for self-reliance and exports. 

  • To achieve a turnover of Rs 1,75,000 Crores (US$ 25Bn) including export of Rs 35,000 Crore (US$ 5 Billion) in Aerospace and Defence goods and services by 2025.
  • To develop a dynamic, robust and competitive Defence industry, including Aerospace and Naval Shipbuilding industry to cater to the needs of Armed forces with quality products.
  • To reduce dependence on imports and take forward "Make in India" initiatives through domestic design and development.
  • To promote export of defence products and become part of the global defence value chains.
  • To create an environment that encourages R&D, rewards innovation, creates Indian IP ownership and promotes a robust and self-reliant defence industry. 

MoD initiatives

Defence import embargo for Atmanirbhar Bharat

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in his address to the Nation on May 12, 2020 had given a clarion call for a self-reliant India based on the five pillars, i.e., Economy, Infrastructure, System, Demography & Demand.

  • Taking cue from that evocation, the Department of Military Affairs (DMA), Ministry of Defence (MoD) has prepared a list of 101 items for which there would be an embargo on the import beyond the timeline indicated against them.
    • Notable ones are: G SAT-6 Satellite Terminals, Satellite GSAT 7R, Conventional Submarines, ASTRA-MK I Beyond Visual Range Air to Air Missile (BVR AAM), Long Range – Land Attack Cruise Missile, etc.
    • With latest embargo on import of 101 items, it is estimated that contracts worth almost Rs 4 lakh crore will be placed upon the domestic industry within the next five to seven years.
  • The embargo on imports is planned to be progressively implemented between 2020 to 2024.
  • MoD has also bifurcated the capital procurement budget for 2020-21 between domestic and foreign capital procurement routes. A separate budget head has been created with an outlay of nearly Rs 52,000 crore for domestic capital procurement in the current financial year.



  • Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA), 2017
    • CAATSA enables U.S. government to sanction countries that engage in ‘significant transactions’ with Iran, Russia, and North Korea.   
    • As per section 235 of CAATSA denial of visas to persons closely associated with the sanctioned person can be imposed.
    • Prohibition of ExIm bank assistance for exports can be issued.

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • In the back drop of recent defence minister's visit, USA cautions its partners about sanctions under CAATSA
  • Aug, 20
    • Ministry of Defence (MoD) on puts out a draft ‘Defence Production & Export Promotion Policy (DPEPP) 2020’ for public feedback.
    • Defence import embargo for Atmanirbhar Bharat

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 10 Jul, 2020
Updated: 26 Jul, 2020

Defence Exercises


  • Malabar exercise
    • Annual naval drills since 2002. Aircraft carriers were involved from 2005. 2019 Malabar exercise happened in Japan.
    • First established in 1992 with India and USA as permanent members, Japan became permanent in 2015
    • Past non-permanent participants are Australia and Singapore
  • Passage (PASSEX) exercise
    • Conducted by Indian Navy in Indian Ocean Region with friendly nations

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Indian Navy conducts PASSEX exercise with USS Nimitz

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 26 Jul, 2020
Updated: 26 Jul, 2020

Indian Weapon Arsenal

  • Pinaka
    • Pinaka multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRS) (Mk-I and Mk-II) : Free-flight artillery rocket with different types of warhead & fuzes, a multi-tube launcher vehicle, a replenishment-cum-loader vehicle, a replenishment vehicle and a command post vehicle. Mk-I has a range of 38km, and Mk-II has a range of 60km.
    • PINAKA Ammunition Support Vehicles : Loader cum Replenishment Vehicle (LCR) designed as Logistics Support Vehicles for Pinaka Multi Barrel Rocket System (MBRS)
  • Long Range Land Attack Missile Systems (LRLACM)
    • Indigenous, low altitude, sub sonic missile to be developed by DRDO.
    • It will have a range in excess of 1,000 km and will be launched from a UVLM (Universal Vertical Launcher Module) of BrahMos. 
  • Astra Missiles
    • ASTRA is a Beyond Visual Range (BVR) class of Air-to-Air Missile (AAM) system designed to be mounted on fighter aircraft
    • Developed by DRDO, the missile is designed to engage and destroy highly manoeuvring supersonic aircraft. The missile has all weather day and night capability.
    • The missile is being developed in multiple variants to meet specific requirements. 
  • S-400 Triumf / Growler
    • Russian origin, to deliver by 2021 end
    • Surface to air missile, with range of 250 km and capable of intercepting ballistic missiles across a 60 km radius. 
    • Indo-Russian joint venture
    • Medium range (300km) ramjet supersonic cruise missile. Can be launched from submarines, jets or land
    • The missile works on fire and forget principle. It is a two-stage missile with a solid propellant booster engine as its first stage which brings it to supersonic speed and then gets separated. The liquid ramjet or the second stage then takes the missile closer to 3 Mach speed in cruise phase