International Relations News
Previously known as the Bangkok Agreement, it was signed in 1975
- Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA) is a initiative under the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP) for trade expansion.
- It is the oldest Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) between countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
- Current members states include Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Mongolia, South Korea, and Sri Lanka. APTA is open to all members of UN-ESCAP.
- APTA is the only operational trade pact linking India and China. India has refused to rejoin ASEAN-led trade Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) .
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
UN-ESCAP serves as the United Nations’ regional hub promoting cooperation among countries to achieve inclusive and sustainable development.
UNDP is the UN's global development network, working for eradication of poverty, and the reduction of inequalities and exclusion. UNDP Executive Board is made up of representatives from 36 countries, from five regional groups who serve on a rotating basis; rulings are recommendatory in nature. India is a member till 2021
2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Sustainable Development Goals is a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.
- In June 1992, Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro adopted Agenda 21, a comprehensive plan of action to build a global partnership for sustainable development to improve human lives and protect the environment.
- Member States unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration at the Millennium Summit in September 2000 at UN Headquarters in New York. The Summit led to the elaboration of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to reduce extreme poverty by 2015.
- At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 2012, Member States adopted the outcome document "The Future We Want" deciding to launch a process to develop a set of SDGs and to establish the UN High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development.
- In 2015, UN Sustainable Development Summit led to adoption of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with 17 SDGs at its core
- No Poverty
- Zero Hunger
- Good Health and Well-being
- Quality Education
- Gender Equality
- Clean Water and Sanitation
- Affordable and Clean Energy
- Decent Work and Economic Growth
- Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
- Reduced Inequality
- Sustainable Cities and Communities
- Responsible Consumption and Production
- Climate Action
- Life Below Water
- Life on Land
- Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
- Partnerships to achieve the Goal
Global Environment Facility (GEF)
- Established in 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems
- GEF serves as a "financial mechanism" to five conventions. The conventions provide broad strategic guidance to the two governing bodies of GEF: the GEF Council and the GEF Assembly for GEF projects. These five conventions are:
- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
- Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
- UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
- Minamata Convention on Mercury.
- GEF, although not linked formally to the' Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer', supports implementation of the protocol in countries with economies in transition.
- GEF Small Grants Programme (SGP)
- Finances community-led initiatives to address global environmental issues
- It is currently implemented by UNDP on behalf of the GEF partnership.
- July, 2020
- China’s attempt to stop funding for Bhutan's Sakteng sanctuary from the UN Development Program’s Global Environment Facility (GEF), on the grounds that it was "disputed" territory.