International Relations News

Sub: International Relations
Topic: International institutions, Agencies and Fora
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 20 Jun, 2020
Updated: 07 Aug, 2020

United Nations

The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945.  It is currently made up of 193 Member States. The UN also provides a forum for its members to express their views in the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and other bodies and committees. By enabling dialogue between its members, and by hosting negotiations, the Organization has become a mechanism for governments to find areas of agreement and solve problems together.

The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat.

United Nation's Security Council (UNSC)

The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the UN Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security

  • UNSC held its first session in 1946, India was first elected as non-permanent member of the Council in 1950-51.
  • UNSC consists of 15 members- 5 permanent, and 10 non-permanent who serve for a term of two years. 
  • Only UNSC can issue binding resolutions on its state members as per Article 25 of UN Charter.
    • UN General Assembly resolutions are recommendatory in nature, and can issue binding resolution but only on its internal functioning.
  • Every member-country of the council, including the non-permanent members, assume the presidency of the council every month. The presidency is determined in an alphabetical order.
  • To be elected as a non-permanent member of the council, each member-country requires a two-third majority of the entire assembly. The veto does not apply to procedural style (functioning of ) of council, which needs support from 9 members
  • Permanent members have veto power but they can not prevent or end a debate through this power. Non permanent members have a sort of "collective right of veto" wherein a resolution can not pass if more than six members vote against it, as a resolution needs 9 votes for majority
  • UNSC can set up subsidiary bodies called "Committees" as needed. Currently there are four committees - Counter-Terrorism Committee, Non-Proliferation Committee, United Nations Military Staff Committee, ans Sanctions Committee

International Court of Justice

  • The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Its seat is at the Peace Palace in the Hague (Netherlands).
    • It is the only one of the six principal organs of the United Nations not located in New York (United States of America).
  • The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions
  • It has no jurisdiction to try individuals accused of war crimes or crimes against humanity. As it is not a criminal court, it does not have a prosecutor able to initiate proceedings
  • Its decisions are final and binding on UN members, however there is no mechanism of enforcing them.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • India has been formally elected as non-permanent member of the powerful UN Security Council for a two-year term.
  • Aug, 20
    • India hints it can take Jadhav case to ICJ again
    • China prompted the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) to discuss the Kashmir issue in a closed-door meeting

Sub: International Relations
Topic: International institutions, Agencies and Fora
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 25 Jun, 2020
Updated: 25 Jun, 2020

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

UNESCO seeks to build peace through international cooperation in Education, the Sciences and Culture.

Global Education Monitoring Report 

  • The report aims to monitor progress towards the education targets in SDG 4 (Sustainable Development Goal) "to ensure inclusive, equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all".
  • Report’s core recommendation is to widen understanding of inclusive education, to include all learners, no matter their identity, background or ability
  • COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed and deepened these inequalities and the fragility of our societies.
  • In India and the Republic of Korea, corporal punishment in schools is much higher than might be predicted.
  • In India, the share of teachers from scheduled castes, which constitute 16% of the country’s population, increased from 9% to 13% between 2005 and 2013.

Sub: International Relations
Topic: International institutions, Agencies and Fora
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 25 Jun, 2020
Updated: 30 Jun, 2020

Bretton Woods Twins

In 1944, after second world war, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank were set up, together called Bretton Woods Twins

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

  • Set in 1945 with the main functions as exchange rate regulation, purchasing short-term foreign currency liabilities of the member nations, allotting special drawing rights (SDRs) to the member nations, and to act as the bailor to the member economies in the situation of any BoP crisis.
  • The Board of Governors of the IMF consists of one Governor and one Alternate Governor from each member country. For India, Finance Minister is the Ex-officio Governor, and RBI Governor is the Alternate Governor on the Board.

IMF publications

  • World Economic Outlook
    • India GDP to contract 4.5%, and world GDP to contract to 4.9%
  • Global Financial Stability Report
  • Fiscal Monitor Report
  • Global Policy Agenda

World Bank 

World Bank is a provider of financial and technical assistance to individual countries around the globe. Currently, the World Bank has two stated goals that it aims to achieve by 2030.

  • The first is to end extreme poverty by decreasing the number of people living on less than $1.90 a day to below 3% of the world population.
  • The second is to increase overall prosperity by increasing income growth in the bottom 40% of every country in the world. 

World Bank and India

  • Strengthening Teaching-Learning and Results for States Program (STARS) project : $500 million to improve the quality and governance of school education in six Indian states - Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, and Rajasthan.
  • Prior to STARS, World Bank has provided assistance of more than 3 billion towards "Education for All"

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • STARS

Sub: International Relations
Topic: International institutions, Agencies and Fora
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

Created: 27 Jun, 2020
Updated: 02 Aug, 2020

Group Summits

Group of 7 (G7) summit

  • Intergovernmental economic organization consisting of the seven major countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom and United States
  • In addition, the presidents of the European Council and the European Commission represent the European Union. They hold all the privileges and obligations of membership but without the right to host or chair a summit
  • It was formed in the backdrop of 70's oil shock.
  • It is held annually attended by heads of government from these countries
  • Russia joined in 1998, making it G-8 but was left out after annexation of Crimea

Group of 20 (G20) summit

  • G20 was created in response to both to the financial crises of 1990s and to a growing recognition that some of these countries were not adequately represented in global economic discussion and governance.
  • In December 1999, the Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors of advanced and emerging countries of systemic importance met for the first time in Berlin. Since then they have been meeting annually.
  • G20 was raised to the Summit level in 2008 to address the global financial and economic crisis of 2008
  • The G-20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. The chair rotates annually among the members and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries.
  • G20 Leaders Summits - First held in 2008, its been held annually since 2011
  • The finance ministers and central bank governors of the G-20 countries meet twice a year 
  • Established in 1999 after a series of major international debt crises, the G20 aims to unite world leaders around shared economic, political and health challenges.
  • G20 members account for 85 per cent of the world economy, 75 per cent of global trade, and two-thirds of the world's population
  • The G20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. The group's chair rotates annually among the members and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries

Russia, India and China (RIC) grouping

  • RIC is a strategic grouping that first took shape in the late 1990s by Russia, for multi-sectoral corporation.
  • In 2003 a decision was made to bring political approach for boundary disputes. An agreement in 2005, identifying political parameters applicable in an eventual border settlement, implicitly recognised India’s interests in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • RIC 2020 was chaired by Russia, and discussed on global pandemic, security and corporation

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • U.S. President Donald Trump on Tuesday invited Prime Minister Narendra Modi to the next G-7 summit to be hosted by the U.S. India is studying the gesture and will examine if the invite is aimed at making India a permanent part of the global high table at the G-7 or its redesigned shape as G-11.