News: July 25, 2020
- Justice Verma Committee, 2013
- On amendments to the Criminal Law so as to provide for quicker trial and enhanced punishment for criminals accused of committing sexual assault against women.
- Recommended insertion of Section 53A in the Indian Evidence Act wherein previous good character should become irrelevant in criminal proceedings.
- V.S. Malimath Committee, 2003: reforms in the criminal justice system
- The panel recommended a modification to Article 20 (3) of the Constitution that protects the accused from being compelled to be a witness against himself/herself. The Committee suggested that the court be given freedom to question the accused to elicit information and draw an adverse inference against the accused in case the latter refuses to answer
- The panel recommends replacing "proof beyond reasonable doubt" with "if the court is convinced that it is true" as basis to convict accused in criminal cases
- Recommended setting up of a National Security Commission and State Security Commissions
- M.R. Shamshad committee - Delhi riots
- Kris Gopalakrishnan committee - The committee was formed by ministry of electronics and information technology (MeitY) , to formulate a framework for Non-personal data (NPD)
- Kihoto Hollohan versus Zachillu, 1992: Judicial review for member disqualification is only available after final decision by the Speaker/Chairman. Till then he acts as a tribunal.
- Information Technology
- Anuradha Bhasin vs Union of India, 2020 - Internet ban in Jammu and Kashmir under the pretext of Section 144
- Police Reforms
- Prakash Singh v. Union of India (2006) - Supreme Court pushing for legislation for governing police forces. Grievance redressal was a key component
- Joginder Kumar v. State of UP, and D.K. Basu v. State of West Bengal - Guidelines for right to life and right to know. To ensure that an accused person is made aware of all critical information regarding her arrest and also convey this to friends and family immediately in the event of being taken in custody.
- Sexual assault
- Shri Bodhisattwa Gautam v. Shubra Chakraborty - suggest that a large number of women still fail to report rapes to the police
- Mahmood Farooqui v. NCT of Delhi (2017) - On consent in relationship
- Raghbir Singh v. State of Haryana (1980), Francis Coralie Mullin v. Union Territory of Delhi (1981)
- Sheela Barse v. State of Maharashtra (1987) : Court condemned cruelty and torture as violative of Article 21
- DK Basu v. State of West Bengal: Prisoners and detainees are not deprived of their Fundamental Rights under Article 21 barring restrictions permitted by law
- Nilabati Behera v. State of Orissa: Supreme Court made sure that the state could no longer escape liability in public law and had to be compelled to pay compensation
- July, 20
- Madhya Pradesh Council of Ministers exceeding prescribed limit
- Controversy over Justice Krishna Dixit's “misogynistic” remarks
- "Committee for the Reform of Criminal Laws" created by Ministry of Home Affairs. Its consultation exercise would start on July 4 and go on for the next three months.
- Non-personal data committee invites public comments on framework
- Kihoto Hollohan versus Zachillu, 1992 case in judicial review powers of high court
There are six schools of hindu philosophy - Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta
The Vedanta essentially refers to the philosophy pronounced in the Upanishads, the final parts of the Vedas. In a broad sense, the Vedanta covers the fundamental philosophy enunciated by the the Upanishads, the Brahma-Sutra and the Bhagavad Gita.
Shamkaracharya, Ramanujacharya and Madhavacharya wrote commentaries on the Brahma-Sutra. This lead to the rise of three schools of the Vedanta:
- Advaita Vedanta : It is a non-dualistic school of Vedanta philosophy, which believes there is no difference between atman and brahaman.
- The philosophy evolved in 9th century AD by Shankaracharya.
- Shankaracharya used four sentences called Mahavakyas (Great Sayings) to establish the identity of Atman and Brahman as scriptural truth:
- Prajnanam brahma - Consciousness is Brahman (Aitareya Upanishad)
- Aham brahmāsmi - I am Brahman (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad)
- Tat tvam asi - That Thou art (Chandogya Upanishad)
- Ayamatma brahma - This Atman is Brahman (Mandukya Upanishad)
- The two Advaita writings of pre-Shankara period are - the Vakyapadiya by Bhartṛhari, and the Mandukya karika by Gaudapada
- Siddhi-literature of Advaita: The term ‘siddhi’ stands for a conclusive conclusion after careful investigation. There are four famous ‘siddhi’ texts in advaita vedanta:
- brahma siddhi of mandaṇa mishra: It discusses brahman as infinite unsurpassed unlimited
- naiṣhkarmya siddhi of sureshvar acharya: It discusses the opposition between karma and gyana, and establishes gyana as the sole means of mokṣha.
- ishta siddhi of vimuktatman: It discusses avidya
- advaita siddhi of madhusudana sarasvati: It refutes criticisms by dvaita scholars
- Vishishtadvaita Vedanta : It is a non-dualistic school of Vedanta philosophy, which believes atman to be part of brahaman, and hence are similar but not identical.
- There are three key principles of Vishishtadvaita:
- Tattva: The knowledge of the 3 real entities namely, jiva (living souls; the sentient); ajiva (the nonsentient) and Ishvara (Vishnu-Narayana or Parahbrahman, Supreme-self and the cause of all manifestations and in-dwelling giver of grace based on Karma).
- Hita: The means of realization, as through bhakti (devotion) and prapatti (self-surrender).
- Purushartha: The goal to be attained, as moksha or liberation from bondage.
- There are three key principles of Vishishtadvaita:
- Dvaita Vedanta : all individual souls (jīvātmans) and matter as eternal and mutually separate entities.
- June, 20
- July, 20
- Siddhi literature - naiṣhkarmya siddhi
Autonomous statutory body, constituted under Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999. IRDA is tasked with regulating and promoting insurance in country. It is a 10-member body - chairman, five full-time and four part-time members
Initiatives in focus
- IRDAI allows insurers to offer short-term (3 to 11 month) COVID-19 health cover.
- Allowed insurers to provide a three- month moratorium (June to August) on repayment of term insurance loans issued by them.
Arogya Sanjeevani (AS)
- Arogya Sanjeevani policy is a standard health insurance policy for individuals and families that provides coverage for basic hospitalisation-related expenses
- At present, the Arogya Sanjeevani Policy comes with a basic health cover of minimum sum insured of Rs 1 lakh and maximum sum insured of Rs 5 lakh
- IRDAI has allowed insurers to offer standard health policy as a group policy under the same name "Arogya Sanjeevani"
- Corona Kavach Policy will be available on an individual and family floater basis
- The minimum sum insured under the Corona Kavach Policy will be ₹50,000 and the maximum sum insured will be ₹5 lakh
- The standard Corona Kavach policy will cover hospitalisation expenses on diagnosis of Covid; and an optional cover of daily cash on benefit basis.
- The policy will cover the cost of treatment incurred by the insured person on availing treatment at home for Covid on positive diagnosis up to 14 days per incident
- The policy will be available for three and half months (3 ½ months),six and half months (6 ½ months), nine and half months (9 ½ months) including the waiting period
- Corona Kavach policy can be availed by persons between the age of 18 to 65 years
Small Banks and Payment Banks
In 2014, the RBI issued the draft guidelines for setting up small banks and payment banks, with following guidelines:
- The minimum capital requirement would be Rs 100 crore.
- Promoter contribution would be at least 40% for the first five years. Excess share holding to be bought down to 26% in 12 years. Entities other than promoters can not have more than 10% stake.
- Foreign shareholding in these banks will be as per FDI policy
- RBI regulations that apply to existing commercial banks, including maintenance of CRR and SLR, apply to Small Banks as well
- They can not open subsidiaries to undertake non banking financial services.
- The purpose of Small Banks is to increase financial inclusion. Their operation is normally restricted to small homogenous clusters.
- They provide basic services like deposits and credits.
- For the initial three years after set up, prior approval will be required for branch expansion.
- The maximum loan size and investment limit exposure to single/group borrowers/issuers would be restricted to 15 per cent of capital funds.
- Loans upto 25 lakhs should constitute at least 50% portfolio towards micro enterprises.
- Eligibility - Professionals with 10 years of experience in banking / finance / Micro Finance Institutions.
- A payments bank is like any other bank, but operating on a smaller scale without involving any credit risk.
- It can carry out most banking operations but can not advance loans or issue credit cards.
- It can accept demand deposits (up to Rs 1 lakh), offer remittance services, mobile payments and other banking services like ATM/debit cards, net banking and third party fund transfers.
Commercial Banks refer to both scheduled and non-scheduled commercial banks which are regulated under Banking Regulation Act, 1949.
Scheduled Commercial Banks (SCBs)
- Any bank which is listed in the 2nd schedule of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 is considered a scheduled bank
- They need to maintain their CRR with RBI; they are allowed to take part in RBI's house clearing; and they should submit their returns periodically to RBI
- SCBs should have a minimum paid up capital and reserve of 5 lakh; and they can not conduct their business determinal to their depositors
- The bank needs to be a corporation rather than a sole-proprietorship or partnership firm.
- Scheduled Commercial Banks are grouped under following categories:
- Public sector banks
- State Bank of India and its Associates
- Nationalised Banks
- Private sector banks
- Foreign Banks
- Regional Rural Banks
- Other Scheduled Commercial Banks.
- Public sector banks
Non-Scheduled Commercial Banks
- Banks not listed in the 2nd schedule of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 are considered a non scheduled commercial bank
- They need to maintain CRR with themselves.
- They are not required to submit their returns periodically to RBI
- They can not borrow money from RBI for normal banking purposes except in
- June, 20
- Small Banks giving more interest than normal banks
- July, 20
- RBI said said stress tests indicated that gross non-performing assets (GNPA) ratio of scheduled commercial banks (SCBs) could worsen to as high as 14.7% by the end of the current financial year, from 8.5% in March 2020
- In 2019, a Memorandum of Cooperation was signed between India, Japan, and Sri Lanka to jointly develop and operate the East Container Terminal (ECT) at Colombo port, with the Sri Lanka Ports Authority (SLPA) holding 100% ownership
- Reserve Bank of India has agreed to a $400 million currency swap facility for Sri Lanka till November 2022
- Deepening Economic Collaboration between India and Sri Lanka: Webinar organised by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) in association with the Lakshman Kadirgamar Institute of International Relations and Strategic Studies, for collaboration and exploring possibilities
- July, 20
- Sri Lanka sets up committee to look into East Container Terminal (ECT) project
- Reserve Bank of India has agreed to a $400 million currency swap facility for Sri Lanka till November 2022. The Central Bank of Sri Lanka had sought the swap facility to help bolster the pandemic hit island nation’s foreign exchange reserves.