News: July 10, 2020

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Health
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 1/6

Health Bodies

India

Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation(CDSCO) 

  • CDSCO is the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) of India, governed by Drugs & Cosmetics Act,1940
  • CDSCO is headed by Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) , and functions under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare
  • Under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, CDSCO is responsible for approval of Drugs, Conduct of Clinical Trials, laying down the standards for Drugs, control over the quality of imported Drugs in the country and coordination of the activities of State Drug Control Organizations
    • Drug approval is done in consultation with CDSCO's Subject Expert Committee (SEC). SEC consists of 8 experts approved by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
    • Medical deviced regulation is done DCGI; and registration and import is done by CDSCO's Medical Device & Diagnostics Division
    • Clinical trials
      • The first phase, usually conducted on a small group of individuals, tries to find what dosage of the vaccine is safe for use, whether it is effective in building their immunity to the virus and whether there are any side effects.
      • The second phase is conducted on a larger group comprising hundreds of persons fitting the description of those for whom the vaccine is intended using characteristics like age and sex. 
      • The third phase is conducted on thousands of patients.
      • After approval, the firm has to monitor the use of vaccine
  • To regulate imported drugs as authority, the CDSCO works with the Drugs Technical Advisory Board and the Drugs Consultative Committee, while the Central Drugs Laboratory undertakes testing of such drugs.
  • CDSCO along with state regulators is jointly responsible for grant of licenses of certain specialized categories of critical Drugs such as blood and blood products, I. V. Fluids, Vaccine and Sera.
  • CDSCO also regulates notified medical devices as per Medical Devices (Amendment) Rules, 2020. 

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)

  • ICMR is the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research
  • ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  • ICMR institutes in focus
    • National Institute of Medical Statistics (NIMS), New Delhi
      • NIMS provides technical expertise on research methodology, programme evaluation, mathematical modelling, data analysis, etc
      • India’s only institute to coordinate and standardize the collection of medical and health statistics in the country
      • Clinical Trials Registry (CTRI) - a free and online public record system for registration of clinical trials being conducted in India

National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) 

  • NPPA was constituted by a resolution in 1997 as an attached office of the Department of Pharmaceuticals (DoP), Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers
  • Has the power to regulate its own procedures for performing functions entrusted to it.
  • NPPA acts as an independent Regulator for pricing of drugs (under the Drugs (Prices Control) Order) and ensures availability and accessibility of medicines at affordable prices.
  • Collect and maintain data on production, exports and imports, market share of individual companies, profitability of companies etc. for bulk drugs and formulations

World

World Health Organization (WHO)

  • WHO is is a specialized agency of the United Nations, established in 1948, with headquarters in Geneva
  • World Health Assembly (WHA) is the decision-making body of WHO.
  • WHA is attended by delegations from all WHO Member States and focuses on a specific health agenda prepared by the 34 member Executive Board. India was elected to chair this board in 2020
  • In Focus
    • WHO acknowledges of emerging evidence of airborne spread of novel corona virus. Currently WHO's guidance on COVID-19 spread is limited to droplet transmission
      • Droplet transmission: It occurs when a person is within 1 metre of the infector, who coughs or sneezes. Such droplets are 5µm-10µm and so fall under gravity
      • Airborne transmission: It refers to transmission through aerosols (small droplets <5µm) which can linger in air for longer periods and so transmit over distances greater than 1 metre.
    • US officially notified WHO of its intention to withdraw membership. It previously halted WHO's funding

[In news]

  • June, 20
    • CDSCO - Drug approvals
    • Glenmark's Favipiravir trial data by CTRI
    • Illegal disinfectant seize
  • July, 20
    • NAPA requested to ensure availability of critical medical equipment
    • WHO on Tuesday said there is evidence emerging of the airborne spread of the coronavirus, after over 230 scientists across the world urged the global body to update its guidance.

Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Policies and Welfare schemes
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 2/6

Northern States Policies And Schemes In Focus

Chhattisgarh

  • Godhan Nyay Yojana: To protect crops from open grazing, prevent straying of animals on roads, procuring cow dung for composting and eco friendly activities

Delhi

  • Electric Vehicle Policy:
    • To boost the city’s economy, reduce pollution levels and generate employment in the transport sector. It also includes incentives for the purchase of electric vehicles.
    • To seek rapid adoption of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) so that they contribute to 25% of all new vehicle registrations by 2024
    • A State EV Fund’, to be created which will be funded through the air ambience fund, levy of additional taxes, cess on inefficient or polluting vehicles
    • Shall remain valid for a period of three years i.e. till 2023

Haryana

  • Parivar Pehchan Patra - PPP is an e-governance initiative that will enable the citizens to get the benefit of various Centre and State government schemes at their door-step in a fair and transparent manner. a separate Citizen Resources Information Department (CRID) has been established to give further momentum to the PPP programme.

Jammu and Kashmir

  • Jammu and Kashmir Grant Domicile Certificate (Procedure) Rules
    • Individuals who have resided in J&K for 15 years or have studied for seven years or appeared in examinations for class 10th or 12th can be eligible for the grant of a domicile certificate.
    • The eligibility also extends to West Pakistan refugees registered as migrants under the erstwhile state’s Relief and Rehabilitation Commission.
    • Tehsildar  (Executive Magistrate) can issue domicile certificate in most cases, and Relief and Rehabilitation Commissioner can issue certificattes for migrants. 

Madhya Pradesh

  • Satna-Bansagar Multi-Village Rural Water Supply Scheme: To bring treated water from the Bansagar Dam on the Son river to 1,019 villages in six blocks of the districts

Maharashtra

  • Magnetic Maharashtra 2.0 - To draw investment to state
  • BMC-Mpower 1on1 - 24x7 helpline to address mental health concerns of citizens in the wake of the novel coronavirus pandemic
  • Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj Research Training and Human Development Institute (SARTHI) - Non-Profit government company for research, policy advocacy, and training for socio-economic and education development of Maratha and Kunbi community

Punjab

  • Digital Punjab - To create a single interface for all grievances with government

Rajasthan

  • Indira Rasoi Yojana - for providing nutritious food to the poor and needy twice a day at concessional rates

[In News: Latest]

  • July, 20
    • Maharashtra Deputy Chief Minister Ajit Pawar on Thursday announced a financial aid of ₹8 crore to SARTHI
  • Aug, 20
    • Haryana to link welfare schemes through ‘Parivar Pehchan Patra’
    • Delhi government launches Electric Vehicle Policy

Sub: Politics
Topic: Judiciary
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 3/6

Supreme Court

Attorney General of India

  • Article 76 : Attorney General of India
    • President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney General for India. In other words, he should have been a high court judge for five years or an high court advocate for 10 years
    • In the performance of his duties the Attorney General shall have right of audience in all courts in the territory of India
    • The Attorney General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall receive such remuneration as the President may determine 
  • Duties - Attorney General is required to appear on behalf of government
    • in all the cases in Supreme Court in which the Government of India is concerned.
    • in any reference made by the president to the Supreme Court under Article 143 of the constitution.
    • in any case in a high court in which the Government of India is concerned, if Government of India requires so.
  • Rights
    • He has right of audience in all courts in the territory of India.
    • He can be part of parliamentary committees to which he is a member.
    • He has the right to speak or to take part in the proceedings of both the Houses of Parliament and their joint sittings [Article 88], but without a right to vote. He enjoys all privileges and immunities that are available to member of parliament
  • Attorney General can not defend accused persons in criminal prosecutions without the permission from government

Solicitor General of India

  • Attorney General has two law officers Solicitor General of India (SG) and Additional Solicitor General of India (ASG). Law officers have a tenure of 3 years, and can be terminated with a 3 months notice by either side
  • They are statutory posts and not constitutional. Appointments Committee of the Cabinet(ACC) recommends the appointment and president officially appoints the Solicitor General

Act

Contempt of Court Act, 1971

Contempt refers to the offence of showing disrespect to the dignity or authority of a court. The Act was based on the recommendations of Sanyal committee

  • The Act divides contempt into civil and criminal contempt.
    • Civil contempt refers to the wilful disobedience of an order of any court.
    • Criminal contempt includes any act or publication which: (i) ‘scandalises’ the court, or (ii) prejudices any judicial proceeding, or (iii) interferes with the administration of justice in any other manner.
      • ‘Scandalising the Court’ broadly refers to statements or publications which have the effect of undermining public confidence in the judiciary. 
  • Fair and accurate reporting of judicial proceedings will not amount to contempt of court. Nor is any fair criticism on the merits of a judicial order after a case is heard and disposed of.
  • The punishment for contempt of court is simple imprisonment for a term up to six months and/or a fine of up to ₹. 2,000.

Articles

  • Article 129: The Supreme Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself
  • Article 142:  The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it
    • Article 142(2): Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, Supreme Court shall have power to make any order for the purpose of securing the attendance of any person, the discovery or production of any documents, or the investigation or punishment of any contempt of itself

Judgements in focus

  • February 2020 Supreme Court judgment on criminalisation in politics 
    • Political parties to publish the entire criminal history of their candidates for Assembly and Lok Sabha elections along with the reasons that goaded them to field suspected criminals over decent people.
    • Information should be published within 48 hours of selection in a local as well as a national newspaper as well as the parties’ social media handles

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Solicitor General Tushar Mehta on PIL about migrants
  • Aug, 20
    • Plea in SC against contempt law by Prashant Bhushan
    • Article 142 for implementation of Ayodhya verdict

Sub: Economics
Topic: Development Infrastructure
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 4/6

Airways

Airports Authority of India (AAI) 

  • Constituted in 1995 by Airports Authority of India Act, 1994 by merging erstwhile National Airports Authority and International Airports Authority of India
  • Design, Development, Operation and Maintenance of international and domestic airports
  • Development and Management of cargo terminals at international and domestic airports.
  • Control and Management of the Indian airspace extending beyond the territorial limits of the country, as accepted by ICAO.

India has a open skies policy with SAARC countries and those beyond the 5,000-km radius, which implies that nations within this distance need to enter into a bilateral agreement and mutually determine the number of flights that their airlines can operate between the two countries

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

  • ICAO is a UN specialized agency, established by in 1944, to manage the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, 1944 (Chicago Convention).
  • ICAO works with the Convention’s 193 Member States and industry groups to reach consensus on international civil aviation Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) and policies in support of a safe, efficient, secure, economically sustainable and environmentally responsible civil aviation sector. 

Air Freedom Rights / Freedoms of the air

  • The freedoms of the air are a set of commercial aviation rights granting a country’s airline the privilege to enter and land in another country’s airspace
  • These were formulated over disagreements on extent of aviation space in Convention on International Civil Aviation, 1944 (Chicago Convention).
  • There are a total of 9 freedoms. Only first five are officially recognized by ICAO.
  • International Air Services Transit Agreement (IASTA) / Two freedom agreement : Refers to first two freedom rights, allowing for transit (reasonable fees can be imposed) and emergency landing in foreign countries.
  • Important Rights:
    • First freedom of Air: Right to fly over a foreign country without landing
    • Second freedom of Air: Right to refuel or carry out maintenance in a foreign country without embarking or disembarking passengers or cargo
    • Third freedom of Air: Right to fly from one's own country to another country
    • Fourth freedom of Air: Right to fly from another country to one's own
    • Fifth freedom of Air: Right to fly between two foreign countries on a flight originating or ending in one's own country
    • Sixth freedom of Air:  Right to fly between two places in a foreign country, or two separate foreign countries, while stopping in one's own country for non-technical reasons.

 

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Airports Authority of India (AAI) has put Air India in cash-and-carry mode at Ahmedabad
    • UAE is keen to have an open sky agreement with India, and wants India to revisit fifth and sixth freedoms
    • After a long stalemate that left many stranded, India and the UAE have agreed to allow each other’s airlines to bring passengers into their territory. Until now Vande Bharat flights operated by Air India Express were flying empty out of India while bringing back Indians from the UAE. The same was true for airlines such as Emirates and flydubai, which were not allowed to bring passengers into India
  • Aug, 20
    • Ban on international flights extended till Aug. 31
    • Kerala plane crash: ICAO document 9981 for airports serves as a guideline for compatibility study of the operation of larger aircraft in a comparatively smaller aerodrome

Sub: Economics
Topic: Development Infrastructure
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 5/6

Industrial Acts And Bodies

Acts

Legal Metrology Act, 2009

  • An Act to establish and enforce standards of weights and measures, regulate trade and commerce in weights, measures
  • By Department  of Consumer Affairs, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution
  • Base units to be metre, Kilogram, seconds.
  • Any standard weight or measure import needs to be first registered with the Director; and every weight should first be verified by controller before put into use.
  • Central government to appoint director and other employees for exercising powers under Act. State governments to appoint a Controller of legal metrology in state, who can delegate his powers to any legal metrology officer, and the said legal metrology officer to exercise such powers as conferred by Act, and not by delegation.
  • Penalty for violation under Act invites maximum fine of 25,000 and subsequent violation invites imprisonment of 6 months.

Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 2011

  • By Department  of Consumer Affairs, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution
  • All packaging to display name and address of manufacturer, date of import, importer's name and address, net quantity, MRP, consumer care details
  • Applies to commodities less than 25kg/lite; except cement and fertilizers (50kg)
  • Base units to be metre, Kilogram, seconds
  • Enforcement of provisions of Legal Metrology Act, 2009 and Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 2011 lies with state government

Bodies

Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT)

  • Established in 1995 and reconstituted in 2000 with the merger of the Department of Industrial Development. Under Ministry of Commerce And Industry
  • Roles and Functions
    • Facilitates investment and technology flow and monitors industrial development 
    • Formulation and implementation of industrial policy and strategies for industrial development 
    • Formulation of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Policy and promotion, approval and facilitation of FDI
      • DPIIT oversees the applications filed on Foreign Investment Facilitation Portal(FIFP) and forwards the same to concerned Administrative Ministry
      • A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) developed by DIPP in consultation with the concerned Administrative Ministries is being followed for processing of the FDI applications.
    • Formulation of policies relating to Intellectual Property Rights in the fields of Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights, Industrial Designs and Geographical Indications of Goods 
    • Administration of Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951
    • Promoting industrial development of industrially backward areas and the North Eastern Region 

Index of Eight Core Industries (ICI)

  • The monthly Index of Eight Core Industries (ICI) is a production volume index. The objective of the ICI is to provide an advance indication on production performance of industries of ‘core’ nature before the release of Index of Industrial Production (IIP) by Central Statistics Office. Like IIP the base year used in 2011-12
  • The Index is compiled and released by Office of the Economic Adviser (OEA), Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP)
  • ICI measures collective and individual performance of production in selected eight core industries 
    1. Coal: Coal Production excluding Coking coal.
    2. Crude Oil: Total Crude Oil Production.
    3. Natural Gas: Total Natural Gas Production.
    4. Refinery Products: Total Refinery Production (in terms of Crude Throughput).
    5. Fertilizer: Urea, Ammonium Sulphate (A/S), Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN), Ammonium chloride (A/C), Diammonium Phosphate (DAP), Complex Grade Fertilizer and Single superphosphate (SSP).
    6. Steel: Production of Alloy and Non-Alloy Steel only.
    7. Cement: Production of Large Plants and Mini Plants.
    8. Electricity: Actual Electricity Generation of Thermal, Nuclear, Hydro, imports from Bhutan.

Independent Bodies

  • Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI)
    • Established in 1927 on Gandhiji's advice by GD Birla and Purshottamdas Thakurdas, FICCI is an association of business organisations in India
    • Taking the Temperature Report - On Coivd-19 impact on Indian economy, along with British Council in association and Art X. The report (in context of helping artists) recommends diverting the budgets already allocated for state-sponsored cultural festivals to help artists, ensuring health coverage to artists, moratoriums on GST payments, and investing in digital infrastructure

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Ministry of Consumer Affairs has ordered e-commerce players in country to put a "country of origin" tag on all their products. The Ministry in its reminder invoked the  Legal Metrology Act, 2009 and Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 2011. DPIIT held meetings with e-commerce companies in this regard
    • 'Taking the Temperature report' by FICCI
  • Aug, 20
    • The output of eight core sector industries shrank for the fourth straight month in June 2020. Of the eight core sectors, the fertilizer industry was the only one which saw actual growth in June, with output rising 4.2%

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 6/6

Defence Exercises

Navy

  • Malabar exercise
    • Annual naval drills since 2002. Aircraft carriers were involved from 2005. 2019 Malabar exercise happened in Japan.
    • First established in 1992 with India and USA as permanent members, Japan became permanent in 2015
    • Past non-permanent participants are Australia and Singapore
  • Passage (PASSEX) exercise
    • Conducted by Indian Navy in Indian Ocean Region with friendly nations

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Indian Navy conducts PASSEX exercise with USS Nimitz

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