News: July 06, 2020

Sub: Geography
Topic: Environment Ecosystem Vegetation and Wildlife
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 1/5

Reserves in focus

National Park

  • Assam
    • Kaziranga National Park
  • Kerala
    • Mukkuruthi National Park 
    • Silent Valley National Park
  • Rajasthan
    • Ranthambhore National Park
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Nagarahole National Park
  • Uttar Pradesh
    • Dudhwa National Park 

Elephant Reserves

  •  Assam
    • Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve

Tiger Reserves

Of the 3,980 tigers left in the world, India, with 2,226, accounts for 75%.

  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve - largest tiger reserve in India 
  •  Assam
    • Orang National Park
  • Maharashtra
    • Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve
  • Rajasthan 
    • Sariska Tiger Reserve 
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Nagarahole Tiger Reserve
  • Telangana
    • Amarabad Tiger Reserve 
  • Uttarakhand
    • Rajaji Tiger Reserve

Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Assam
    • Dehing Patkai wildlife sanctuary : To be upgraded into national park
    • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary 
  • Karnataka
    • Sharavathi Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kerala
    • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary
      • borders the Mukkuruthi National Park in the south and the Silent Valley National Park buffer zone in the northeast.
      • Sanctuary comprise the new Amarambalam reserve forest and Vadakkekotta vested forest
      • However, the Manjeri colony of the primitive Cholanaikar tribes has been exempted from the sanctuary. 
  • Global
    • Bhutan
      • Sakteng wildlife sanctuary

[In News: Latest]

  • June, 20
    • Floods
    • Tiger reserves in news
  • July, 20
    • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary - inauguration of 18th wildlife sanctuary in state.
    • Sakteng wildlife sanctuary - China objecting to UNDP's Global Environment Facility (GEF) funding for park, citing boundary dispute
    • Green-lighting projects during pandemic

Sub: International Relations
Topic: International institutions, Agencies and Fora Development
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 2/5

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

UNDP is the UN's global development network, working for eradication of poverty, and the reduction of inequalities and exclusion. UNDP Executive Board is made up of representatives from 36 countries, from five regional groups who serve on a rotating basis; rulings are recommendatory in nature. India is a member till 2021

2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Sustainable Development Goals is a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.

  • History
    • In June 1992, Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro adopted Agenda 21, a comprehensive plan of action to build a global partnership for sustainable development to improve human lives and protect the environment.
    • Member States unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration at the Millennium Summit in September 2000 at UN Headquarters in New York. The Summit led to the elaboration of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to reduce extreme poverty by 2015.
    • At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 2012, Member States adopted the outcome document "The Future We Want" deciding to launch a process to develop a set of SDGs and to establish the UN High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development. 
    • In 2015,  UN Sustainable Development Summit led to adoption of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with 17 SDGs at its core
  • Goals
    1. No Poverty
    2. Zero Hunger
    3. Good Health and Well-being
    4. Quality Education
    5. Gender Equality
    6. Clean Water and Sanitation
    7. Affordable and Clean Energy
    8. Decent Work and Economic Growth
    9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    10. Reduced Inequality
    11. Sustainable Cities and Communities
    12. Responsible Consumption and Production
    13. Climate Action
    14. Life Below Water
    15. Life on Land
    16. Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
    17. Partnerships to achieve the Goal

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

  • Established in 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems
  • GEF serves as a "financial mechanism" to five conventions. The conventions provide broad strategic guidance to the two governing bodies of GEF: the GEF Council and the GEF Assembly for GEF projects. These five conventions are:
    1. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
    2. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
    3. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
    4. UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
    5. Minamata Convention on Mercury. 
  • GEF, although not linked formally to the' Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer', supports implementation of the protocol in countries with economies in transition.
  • GEF Small Grants Programme (SGP)
    • Finances community-led initiatives to address global environmental issues
    • It is currently implemented by UNDP on behalf of the GEF partnership.

[In News]

  • July, 2020
    • China’s attempt to stop funding for Bhutan's Sakteng sanctuary from the UN Development Program’s Global Environment Facility (GEF), on the grounds that it was "disputed" territory.

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 3/5

Domestic Workers

Code on Social Security Bill, 2019

  • Introduced in the Lok Sabha by the Minister of State for Labour and Employment, but not yet passed.
  • It replaces nine laws related to social security, including the Employees’ Provident Fund Act, 1952, the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, and the Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008.
  • Social security schemes
    • Under the Code, the central government may notify various social security schemes for the benefit of workers.  These include an Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) Scheme, an Employees’ Pension Scheme (EPS), and an Employees’ Deposit Linked Insurance (EDLI) Scheme. 
    • The government may also notify: (i) an Employees’ State Insurance (ESI) Scheme to provide sickness, maternity, and other benefits, (ii) gratuity to workers on completing five years of employment (or lesser than five years in certain cases such as death), (iii) maternity benefits to women employees, (iv) cess for welfare of building and construction workers, and (v) compensation to employees and their dependants in the case of occupational injury or disease. 
    • In addition, the central or state government may notify specific schemes for gig workers, platform workers, and unorganised workers to provide various benefits, such as life and disability cover. 
      • Gig workers refer to workers outside of the traditional employer-employee relationship (e.g., freelancers).  Platform workers are workers who access other organisations or individuals using online platforms and earn money by providing them with specific services.  Unorganised workers include home-based and self-employed workers. 
    •  

Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008

  • To provide social security relating to life and disability cover, health and maternity benefits, old age protection to the unorganised workers including domestic workers
  • Constitutes a National Social Security Board  and State Social Security Board to perform function assigned under the Act

Domestic Workers

  • As per NSSO statistics 2011-12, there are 39 lakh people employed as domestic workers
  • draft National Policy on Domestic Workers : Ministry of Labour & Employment is considering to formulate a National Policy on Domestic Workers which is in the draft stage. Salient features to include registration under existing legislation, minimum wages, social security, and union formation.
  • Domestic Workers Sector Skills Council - Under Ministry of Skills Development to enable professionalization of domestic workers and enable their career progression.

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Domestic workers struggle to make ends meet

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 4/5

Labour Codes

As part of its reform initiatives, the labour ministry has decided to amalgamate 44 labour laws into four codes - on wages, industrial relations, social securityand safety, and health and working conditions

Code on Wages Act, 2019

It seeks to regulate wage and bonus payments in all employments where any industry, trade, business, or manufacture is carried out. The Code replaces the following four laws: (i) the Payment of Wages Act, 1936, (ii) the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, (iii) the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965, and (iv) the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.

  • Central government will fix a floor wage, taking into account living standards of workers.  Further, it may set different floor wages for different geographical area. The minimum wages decided by the central or state governments must be higher than the floor wage.
  • Central or state government may fix the number of hours that constitute a normal working day.  In case employees work in excess of a normal working day, they will be entitled to overtime wage, which must be at least twice the normal rate of wages. 
  • Wages may be deducted on grounds defined in Act, but should never exceed 50% of the total wages
  • The Code prohibits gender discrimination in matters related to wages and recruitment of employees for the same work or work of similar nature
  • Central and state governments will constitute advisory boards
  • Maximum penalty of three months and fine upto one lakh rupees

Code on Social Security Bill, 2019

  • Introduced in the Lok Sabha by the Minister of State for Labour and Employment, but not yet passed.
  • It replaces nine laws related to social security, including the Employees’ Provident Fund Act, 1952, the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, and the Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008.
  • Social security schemes
    • Under the Code, the central government may notify various social security schemes for the benefit of workers.  These include an Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) Scheme, an Employees’ Pension Scheme (EPS), and an Employees’ Deposit Linked Insurance (EDLI) Scheme. 
    • The government may also notify: (i) an Employees’ State Insurance (ESI) Scheme to provide sickness, maternity, and other benefits, (ii) gratuity to workers on completing five years of employment (or lesser than five years in certain cases such as death), (iii) maternity benefits to women employees, (iv) cess for welfare of building and construction workers, and (v) compensation to employees and their dependants in the case of occupational injury or disease. 
    • In addition, the central or state government may notify specific schemes for gig workers, platform workers, and unorganised workers to provide various benefits, such as life and disability cover. 
      • Gig workers refer to workers outside of the traditional employer-employee relationship (e.g., freelancers).  Platform workers are workers who access other organisations or individuals using online platforms and earn money by providing them with specific services.  Unorganised workers include home-based and self-employed workers. 

Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008

  • To provide social security relating to life and disability cover, health and maternity benefits, old age protection to the unorganised workers including domestic workers
  • Constitutes a National Social Security Board  and State Social Security Board to perform function assigned under the Act

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Domestic workers struggle to make ends meet

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 5/5

Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF)

Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) refers to seven security forces under the authority of Ministry of Home Affairs.

  1. Assam Rifles (AR)
  2. Border Security Force (BSF)
    • BSF came into existence in 1965 to man the borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh
    • BSF is India's "First Line of Defence", with moto "Jeevan Paryant Kartavya". BSF can even hold ground is less threatened situations as long as main attack does not develop into something outside the domain of BSF
    • BSF also acts as the representative of the Indian government in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping missions
    • The peacetime tasks include preventing smuggling and any other illegal activity, and unauthorised intrusions
  3. Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
    • CISF came into existence in 1969, established under an Act of Parliament, “Central Industrial Security Force Act, 1968 
    • CISF provides security to the strategic establishment, including the Department of Space, the Department of Atomic Energy, the Airports, the Delhi Metro, the ports, the historical monuments and the basic areas of Indian economy such as petroleum and natural gas, electricity, coal, steel and mining.
    • After the Mumbai terrorist attack on November 2008, the mandate of the force has been broadened to provide direct security cover to private sector also
    • CISF is the only force with a customized and dedicated fire wing.
  4. Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
  5. Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
    • Patrols entire stretch of Indo-China border, from Karakoram pass in Jammu & Kashmir to Jechap La in Arunachal Pradesh.
    • ITBP replaced Assam Rifles in Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh in 2004
  6. National Security Guard (NSG)
  7. Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)
    • SSB  is India's primary border patrol organization along borders of Nepal and Bhutan.

 

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Prime Minister Modi's visit to Leh
    • Women officers can now get Permanent Commission and command postings in all services other than combat
  • Aug, 20
    • CISF to probe ‘Are you Indian?’ taunt at DMK MP Kanimozhi’s complaint by paramilitary agency at the Chennai airport

Questions

Question 1:

Which of the following strengthens the practice of “Federalism” in India?

  1. An independent judiciary
  2. Principle of Subsidiarity

Options:

Explanation:

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