News: July 04, 2020

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Health
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 1/8

Health Bodies

India

Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation(CDSCO) 

  • CDSCO is the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) of India, governed by Drugs & Cosmetics Act,1940
  • CDSCO is headed by Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) , and functions under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare
  • Under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, CDSCO is responsible for approval of Drugs, Conduct of Clinical Trials, laying down the standards for Drugs, control over the quality of imported Drugs in the country and coordination of the activities of State Drug Control Organizations
    • Drug approval is done in consultation with CDSCO's Subject Expert Committee (SEC). SEC consists of 8 experts approved by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
    • Medical deviced regulation is done DCGI; and registration and import is done by CDSCO's Medical Device & Diagnostics Division
    • Clinical trials
      • The first phase, usually conducted on a small group of individuals, tries to find what dosage of the vaccine is safe for use, whether it is effective in building their immunity to the virus and whether there are any side effects.
      • The second phase is conducted on a larger group comprising hundreds of persons fitting the description of those for whom the vaccine is intended using characteristics like age and sex. 
      • The third phase is conducted on thousands of patients.
      • After approval, the firm has to monitor the use of vaccine
  • To regulate imported drugs as authority, the CDSCO works with the Drugs Technical Advisory Board and the Drugs Consultative Committee, while the Central Drugs Laboratory undertakes testing of such drugs.
  • CDSCO along with state regulators is jointly responsible for grant of licenses of certain specialized categories of critical Drugs such as blood and blood products, I. V. Fluids, Vaccine and Sera.
  • CDSCO also regulates notified medical devices as per Medical Devices (Amendment) Rules, 2020. 

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)

  • ICMR is the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research
  • ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  • ICMR institutes in focus
    • National Institute of Medical Statistics (NIMS), New Delhi
      • NIMS provides technical expertise on research methodology, programme evaluation, mathematical modelling, data analysis, etc
      • India’s only institute to coordinate and standardize the collection of medical and health statistics in the country
      • Clinical Trials Registry (CTRI) - a free and online public record system for registration of clinical trials being conducted in India

National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) 

  • NPPA was constituted by a resolution in 1997 as an attached office of the Department of Pharmaceuticals (DoP), Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers
  • Has the power to regulate its own procedures for performing functions entrusted to it.
  • NPPA acts as an independent Regulator for pricing of drugs (under the Drugs (Prices Control) Order) and ensures availability and accessibility of medicines at affordable prices.
  • Collect and maintain data on production, exports and imports, market share of individual companies, profitability of companies etc. for bulk drugs and formulations

World

World Health Organization (WHO)

  • WHO is is a specialized agency of the United Nations, established in 1948, with headquarters in Geneva
  • World Health Assembly (WHA) is the decision-making body of WHO.
  • WHA is attended by delegations from all WHO Member States and focuses on a specific health agenda prepared by the 34 member Executive Board. India was elected to chair this board in 2020
  • In Focus
    • WHO acknowledges of emerging evidence of airborne spread of novel corona virus. Currently WHO's guidance on COVID-19 spread is limited to droplet transmission
      • Droplet transmission: It occurs when a person is within 1 metre of the infector, who coughs or sneezes. Such droplets are 5µm-10µm and so fall under gravity
      • Airborne transmission: It refers to transmission through aerosols (small droplets <5µm) which can linger in air for longer periods and so transmit over distances greater than 1 metre.
    • US officially notified WHO of its intention to withdraw membership. It previously halted WHO's funding

[In news]

  • June, 20
    • CDSCO - Drug approvals
    • Glenmark's Favipiravir trial data by CTRI
    • Illegal disinfectant seize
  • July, 20
    • NAPA requested to ensure availability of critical medical equipment
    • WHO on Tuesday said there is evidence emerging of the airborne spread of the coronavirus, after over 230 scientists across the world urged the global body to update its guidance.

Sub: Politics
Topic: Judiciary
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 2/8

Codes And Articles In Focus

Articles

  • States
    • Nagaland
      • Article 371A - Special provision with respect to the state of Nagaland
      • Article 371A (1) (b) - important functions like "transfer and posting of officials" entrusted with the maintenance of law and order of and above the district level will be with the approval of the Governor.
  • Right to Health
    • Right to Health is an integral part of Right to Life as enshrined in Article 21.
    • Article 38 lays down the responsibility of the state to secure social order for the in promotion of the welfare of public health.
    • Article 39 (e) pertains to the protection of health of the workers.
    • Article 41 relates to providing public assistance by the state in special circumstances such as sickness, disability, old age etc.
    • Article 42 protects the health of the infant and the mothers, i.e. in a way, it pertains to maternity benefit.
    • Article 47 imposes a primary duty of the state in improvement of public health, in securing of justice, providing humane conditions of work for the workers, extension of benefits pertaining to sickness, disability, old age and maternity benefits. In addition to this, the state is under an obligation to prohibit the consumption of liquor in the interest of the public good.
    • Article 48A: State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
    • Article 164 (1A) : The total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State
  • Environment
    • Article 48A - State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
    • Article 51 A - Every citizen shall protect the environment.
  • Governor
    • Article 159 :  Oath or affirmation by Governor 
    • Article 174 :  Empowers Governor to decide on session sittings of Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council, but no more than six months should pass between two sittings. It also allows Governor to Prorogue either House and dissolve Legislative Assembly.
    • Article 175 : Governor may address the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council, and can require attendance of its members. Governor may also send message (pending Bills, functioning of House, order, etc) to either House, and the respective House will have to consider the said message

Codes

Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC)  codes

  • Section 144
    • Power to issue order in urgent cases of nuisance of apprehended danger.
    • It authorizes the Executive Magistrate of any state or territory to issue an order to prohibit the assembly of four or more people in an area. According to the law, every member of such 'unlawful assembly' can be booked for engaging in rioting.
    • Also referred as 'gag order'

Indian Penal Code (IPC) codes

  • Section 188:  Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant. It is sufficient that he knows of the order which he disobeys. It can lead to imprisonment of 6 months and/or a fine of Rs 10000
  • Section 295: Damage to a place of worship or an object held sacred, punishable with imprisonment which may extend to two years, or fine, or both.
  • Section 300 and 302: Mob Lynching - Lynching incidents can be dealt with under Section 300 and 302 of IPC. IPC does not specifically describes lynching
  • Section 330 and 331: causing hurt or grievous hurt to extort confession 
  • Section 383: Extortion
  • Section 497 and 498: Adultry
  • Section 498A: Domestic violence
  • Section 506: Criminal Intimidation. non bailable remand

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Madhya Pradesh Council of Ministers exceeding prescribed limit
    • Section 188: Lockdown curbing, in Uttar Pradesh alone, as of 29th April, 2020, FIRs have been registered against 33094 people under Section 188 of IPC during the period of lockdown.
  • July, 20
    • Governor of West Bengal cites Article 159 of deteriorating condition of state
    • 10 yr old dalit girl booked for sacrilege in Punjab
    • Rajasthan Governor allows holding of Assembly session
  • Aug, 20
    • Section 188 - Cases of hospitals and ambulances overcharging public during pandemic

 

News: 3/8

Global maritime agencies and agreements

MASE Programme

  • Funded by the European Union, MASE Programme is a regional programme that supports implementation of the Regional Strategy and Action Plan to fight piracy and promote maritime security in the Eastern and Southern Africa-Indian Ocean.
  • The MASE countries involve four main regional organisations:
    • The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
    • East Africa Community (EAC)
    • Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
    • Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)
      • IOC is a regional forum in the Southwest Indian Ocean, comprising five nations: Comoros, France (Reunion), Madagascar, Mauritius and Seychelle
      • It was created in 1982 and instiutionalized in 1984, and funded by EU-MASE (European Union Marine Security) Programme
      • IOC is the only African regional organization composed entirely of islands
      • It focuses on trade, tourism and marine conservation
      • IOC has 7 observer members - India, China, Malta, European Union, International Organization of La Francophonie (OIF), Japan, and United Nations
  • Through the MASE Programme, the EU supports equipment and training for
    • Regional Maritime Information Fusion Centre (RMIFC) in Madagascar, which works on gathering and analysing data
    • Regional Coordination of Operations Centre (RCOC) in Seychelles, which works on coordinating the regional response based on information from RMIFC

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

  • Came into operation in 1982, UNCLOS defines the rights and responsibilities of a nation over oceans
  • UN has no direct operational role in the implementation of the Convention.
  • The convention has been ratified by 168 parties. India ratified the convention in 1985
  • Dispute Resolution: Under Article 28,  a State shall be free to choose, by means of a written declaration, one or more of the following means for the settlement of disputes 
    • International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)
    • International Court of Justice
    • ad hoc arbitration (in accordance with Annex VII)
      • If there is no preference, Annex VII will be the default means of dispute settlement 
      • Most of the cases have been arbitrated by Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
    • a special arbitral tribunal constituted for certain categories of disputes under Annex VIII
  • UNCLOS established three institutions:
    • International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) - ITLOS is the specialized international judicial body for the settlement of disputes concerning the interpretation or application of UNCLOS. The decisions of the Tribunal are final and binding and the parties to the dispute are required to comply with them. However, the Tribunal has no means of enforcing its decisions. 
    • International Seabed Authority (ISA) - regulate and control all mineral-related activities in the international seabed area for the benefit of mankind as a whole.
    • Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) - CCLS established the rights of a sovereign state over the continental shelf surrounding it, if there be any.
  • Maritime Zones : UNCLOS divides marine areas into five main zones, each with a different legal status
    1. Internal Waters : Internal Waters include littoral areas such as ports, rivers, inlets and other marine spaces landward of the baseline (low-water line) where the port state has jurisdiction to enforce domestic regulations. 
    2. Territorial Sea : In the Territorial Sea, a coastal state has unlimited jurisdiction over all (including foreign) activities unless restrictions are imposed by law. All coastal states have the right to a territorial sea extending 12 nautical miles from the baseline.
    3. Contiguous Zone : The Contiguous Zone is an intermediary zone between the territorial sea and the high seas extending enforcement jurisdiction of the coastal state to a maximum of 24 nautical miles from baselines. Coastal state can take measures to prevent or regulate armed maritime security activities 
    4. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) :  EEZ is an intermediary zone, lying between the territorial sea (12 nautical miles) and the high seas to the maximum extent of 200 nautical miles. In this zone the coastal state retains exclusive sovereignty over exploring, exploiting and conserving all natural resources.
    5. High Seas :  High Seas lie beyond 200 nautical miles from shore, open and freely available to everyone, governed by the principle of equal rights for all.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • SAGAR initiative, India-Africa Maritime Cooperation
  • July, 20
    • India loses jurisdiction over Italian marines case
  • Aug, 20
    • Supreme Court asking for hefty compensation for fishermen

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Operations and Initiatives
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 4/8

Indian maritime agencies and agreements

Information Fusion Centre (IFC) for the Indian Ocean Region (IOR)

  • IFC has been established at Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC) Gurugram, and is jointly administered by the Indian Navy and Indian Coast Guard
  • IFC-IOR is established with the vision of strengthening maritime security in the region, and acting as a maritime information hub for the region
  • IFC-IOR hosts Liaison Officers from partner countries

Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against Safety of Maritime Navigation and Fixed Platforms on Continental Shelf Act, 2002

  • Extends to whole of India and its maritime zones
  • Penalty
    • If the suspect or accused is present in Indian territory and has not been extradited by any convention or protocol, he shall be tried with in India in accordance with provisions of Act
    • Acts of violence are punishable with upto 10 years of imprisonment and fine.
    • An offence causing death shall be punished with death
  • For speedy trial, a special court may be designated by state government in concurrence with Chief Justice

[In news]

  • June, 20
    • IFC-IOR trying to post Navy Liasion Officers at RMIFC
    • Security and Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR)
  • July, 20
    • India loses jurisdiction over Italian marines case

 

Sub: Geography
Topic: Environment Ecosystem Vegetation and Wildlife
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 5/8

Reserves in focus

National Park

  • Assam
    • Kaziranga National Park
  • Kerala
    • Mukkuruthi National Park 
    • Silent Valley National Park
  • Rajasthan
    • Ranthambhore National Park
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Nagarahole National Park
  • Uttar Pradesh
    • Dudhwa National Park 

Elephant Reserves

  •  Assam
    • Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve

Tiger Reserves

Of the 3,980 tigers left in the world, India, with 2,226, accounts for 75%.

  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve - largest tiger reserve in India 
  •  Assam
    • Orang National Park
  • Maharashtra
    • Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve
  • Rajasthan 
    • Sariska Tiger Reserve 
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Nagarahole Tiger Reserve
  • Telangana
    • Amarabad Tiger Reserve 
  • Uttarakhand
    • Rajaji Tiger Reserve

Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Assam
    • Dehing Patkai wildlife sanctuary : To be upgraded into national park
    • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary 
  • Karnataka
    • Sharavathi Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kerala
    • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary
      • borders the Mukkuruthi National Park in the south and the Silent Valley National Park buffer zone in the northeast.
      • Sanctuary comprise the new Amarambalam reserve forest and Vadakkekotta vested forest
      • However, the Manjeri colony of the primitive Cholanaikar tribes has been exempted from the sanctuary. 
  • Global
    • Bhutan
      • Sakteng wildlife sanctuary

[In News: Latest]

  • June, 20
    • Floods
    • Tiger reserves in news
  • July, 20
    • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary - inauguration of 18th wildlife sanctuary in state.
    • Sakteng wildlife sanctuary - China objecting to UNDP's Global Environment Facility (GEF) funding for park, citing boundary dispute
    • Green-lighting projects during pandemic

Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Agencies and Bodies
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 6/8

Pressure Groups In Focus

Aviation

  • Centre for Aviation (CAPA) : Analyses aviation and travel industry

Environment

  • Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) : Not-for-profit organization in environment protect domain
  • The Energy and Resources (TERI) : Research institute in New Delhi that specializes in the fields of energy, environment and sustainable development
  • South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People (SANDRP) : SANDRP is a network of researchers and experts working on water and environmental issues.
  • TRAFFIC, a leading wildlife trade monitoring network.
    • It recorded a significant increase in poaching in India during the over two month lockdown period.

Health

  • Indian Medical Association - voluntary organization of doctors

Human Rights

  • People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) : formed in India in 1976 by socialist leader Jayaprakash Narayan

Rehabilitation

  • Centre for Holistic Development - For homeless citizens

Wildlife

  • TRAFFIC: TRAFFIC is a leading non-governmental organisation working globally on trade in wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Recent paper called 'SPOTTED' by TRAFFIC India, revealed that of the total of 747 leopard deaths between 2015-2019 in India, 596 were linked to illegal wildlife trade and activities related to poaching. Leopard poaching was highest in Uttarakhand, Maharashtra

Women

  • Pinjra Tod - autonomous collective effort to ensure secure, affordable and not gender-discriminatory accommodation for women students across Delhi.
    • Activists booked under UAPA in relation to communal violence

[In News: Latest]

  • July, 20
    • CAPA estimated that the second quarter beginning July too will be a washout. It reiterated that the market may only be left with 2-3 airlines if there is a delay in recapitalisation for the sector.
    • Antibiotics are extensively misused in the dairy sector and its residues remain largely untested in milk, noted a recently published survey report by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).
  • Aug, 20
    • Leopard poaching highest in Uttarakhand, Maharashtra

Sub: Politics
Topic: Constitution Constitutional and Statutory bodies
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 7/8

Human Rights

Human Rights Commission

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) 

  • Established in 1993, NHRC is a statutory body created under Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993.
  • Composition
    • The commission is a multi-member body consisting of a chairman and four members appointed by President, based on a six member committee headed by Prime Minister.
    • The chairman should be a retired chief justice of India. The members should be serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court, a serving or retired chief justice of a high court and two persons having knowledge or practical experience with respect to human rights.
    • They can be removed by President on grounds defined in Act, but for grounds on proven misbehavior, President has to refer to Supreme Court.
    • The commission also has four ex-officio members - the chairmen of the National Commission for Minorities, the National Commission for SCs, the National Commission for STs, and the National Commission for Women
  • NHRC has suo moto power to inquire into any case of human rights violation by a public servant. The case can only be taken by Commission within one year from date on which alleged violation occurred.
  • Statistics
    • Since 2017, NHRC has received 5300 complains of custodial death

State Human Rights Commission (SHRC) 

  • Established in 1993, SHRC is a statutory body created under Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993.
  • Composition
    • The commission is a multi-member body consisting of a chairman and two members
    • They are appointed by the Governor on the recommendations of a committee consisting of the chief minister as its head, the speaker of the Legislative Assembly, the state home minister and the leader of the opposition in the Legislative Assembly. In the case of a state having Legislative Council, the chairman of the Council and the leader of the opposition in the Council would also be the members of the committee.
    • The chairperson should be a retired Chief Justice of a High Court and members should be a serving or retired judge of a High Court or a District Judge in the state with a minimum of seven years experience as District Judge
      • A sitting judge of a High Court or a sitting District Judge can be appointed only after consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court of the concerned state.
    • They hold office for a term of five years or until they attain the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier. After their tenure, the chairperson and members are not eligible for further employment under a state government or the Central government.
    • They can be removed by President (not Governor) on grounds defined in Act, but for grounds on proven misbehavior, President has to refer to Supreme Court.
    • Their remuneration is determined by state governments
  • Inquiry
    • A State Human Rights Commission can inquire into violation of human rights only in respect of subjects mentioned in the State List and the Concurrent List of the Seventh Schedule
    • State Human Rights Commission does not inquire into cases already being inquired by National Human Rights Commission or any other Statutory Commission
    • The Commission is vested with the power to regulate its own procedure. It has all the powers of a civil court and its proceedings have a judicial character. It may call for information or report from the state government
    • SHRC has suo moto power to inquire into any case of human rights violation by a public servant. The case can only be taken by Commission within one year from date on which alleged violation occurred.
    • Functions of SHRC are mainly recommendatory in nature. It has no power to punish the violators of human rights, nor to award any relief including monetary relief to the victim. Further its recommendations are non binding on State.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • NHRC issued notice to IRDA over high premiums for medical policies for healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu SHRC looking into alleged thrashing in custody.
  • July, 20
    • Custodial death - Law requires prosecution to prove that the police caused the death.

 

News: 8/8

Global Law Bodies

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

  • PCA was the first permanent intergovernmental organization to provide a forum for the resolution of international disputes through arbitration and other peaceful means.
  • It was established by the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, concluded at The Hague in 1899 (revised in 1907) during the first Hague Peace Conference.
  • PCA has a three-part organizational structure consisting of an Administrative Council that oversees its policies and budgets, a panel of independent potential arbitrators known as the Members of the Court, and its Secretariat, known as the International Bureau, headed by the Secretary-General.
  • Arbitral awards are final and binding, as are court judgements. Awards in commercial arbitration are easily enforceable under the New York Convention, 1958

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • PCA - India loses jurisdiction over Italian marines case, and will abide by its ruling
  • Aug, 20
    • India’s focus now be on negotiating for compensation and ensuring a purposive criminal trial in Italy.

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