News: July 02, 2020

Sub: Politics
Topic: Judiciary
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 1/7

Codes And Articles In Focus


  • States
    • Nagaland
      • Article 371A - Special provision with respect to the state of Nagaland
      • Article 371A (1) (b) - important functions like "transfer and posting of officials" entrusted with the maintenance of law and order of and above the district level will be with the approval of the Governor.
  • Right to Health
    • Right to Health is an integral part of Right to Life as enshrined in Article 21.
    • Article 38 lays down the responsibility of the state to secure social order for the in promotion of the welfare of public health.
    • Article 39 (e) pertains to the protection of health of the workers.
    • Article 41 relates to providing public assistance by the state in special circumstances such as sickness, disability, old age etc.
    • Article 42 protects the health of the infant and the mothers, i.e. in a way, it pertains to maternity benefit.
    • Article 47 imposes a primary duty of the state in improvement of public health, in securing of justice, providing humane conditions of work for the workers, extension of benefits pertaining to sickness, disability, old age and maternity benefits. In addition to this, the state is under an obligation to prohibit the consumption of liquor in the interest of the public good.
    • Article 48A: State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
    • Article 164 (1A) : The total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State
  • Environment
    • Article 48A - State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
    • Article 51 A - Every citizen shall protect the environment.
  • Governor
    • Article 159 :  Oath or affirmation by Governor 
    • Article 174 :  Empowers Governor to decide on session sittings of Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council, but no more than six months should pass between two sittings. It also allows Governor to Prorogue either House and dissolve Legislative Assembly.
    • Article 175 : Governor may address the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council, and can require attendance of its members. Governor may also send message (pending Bills, functioning of House, order, etc) to either House, and the respective House will have to consider the said message


Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC)  codes

  • Section 144
    • Power to issue order in urgent cases of nuisance of apprehended danger.
    • It authorizes the Executive Magistrate of any state or territory to issue an order to prohibit the assembly of four or more people in an area. According to the law, every member of such 'unlawful assembly' can be booked for engaging in rioting.
    • Also referred as 'gag order'

Indian Penal Code (IPC) codes

  • Section 188:  Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant. It is sufficient that he knows of the order which he disobeys. It can lead to imprisonment of 6 months and/or a fine of Rs 10000
  • Section 295: Damage to a place of worship or an object held sacred, punishable with imprisonment which may extend to two years, or fine, or both.
  • Section 300 and 302: Mob Lynching - Lynching incidents can be dealt with under Section 300 and 302 of IPC. IPC does not specifically describes lynching
  • Section 330 and 331: causing hurt or grievous hurt to extort confession 
  • Section 383: Extortion
  • Section 497 and 498: Adultry
  • Section 498A: Domestic violence
  • Section 506: Criminal Intimidation. non bailable remand

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Madhya Pradesh Council of Ministers exceeding prescribed limit
    • Section 188: Lockdown curbing, in Uttar Pradesh alone, as of 29th April, 2020, FIRs have been registered against 33094 people under Section 188 of IPC during the period of lockdown.
  • July, 20
    • Governor of West Bengal cites Article 159 of deteriorating condition of state
    • 10 yr old dalit girl booked for sacrilege in Punjab
    • Rajasthan Governor allows holding of Assembly session
  • Aug, 20
    • Section 188 - Cases of hospitals and ambulances overcharging public during pandemic

Sub: History
Topic: Art & Culture Performing Arts
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 2/7

Performing Arts In Focus


  • Thorpaavai koothu - Shadow puppetry art from Tamil Nadu
  • Marapaavai koothu - String puppetry art from Tamil Nadu


Theatres of South India

  • Theru koothu
    • Street theatre in Tamil Nadu. The stories are derived from the Puranas, the Mahabharata, and the Ramayana. Songs predominate, while much of the dialogue is improvised. 
    • 11 types of koothu are mentioned in Silappadikkaram, but Therukoothu has remained the only total theatre with the actor having to sing, dance, speak and perform rituals.
  • Yakshagana theatre
    • It originated in the royals courts of the Vijaynagar empire and was performed by a particular community known as Jakkula Varu. 
    • It is stil prevalent in the regions of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Originally, it was largely a descriptive dance-drama enacted by a single artist. Later forms adopted further variations and became a typical dance drama.
    • Popular Yakshagana Plays Garudachalam by Obayya Mantri, Krishna-Hiramani by Srinddha and Sugriva Vijayam by Rudra Kavi.
    • Some of the popular variants of Yakshagana are Lalita in Maharashtra, Bhavai in Gujarat, Talamaddale in Karnataka and Kerala, and Gandharva Gana in Nepal.
    • Tala-maddale
      • Tala-Maddale is an ancient form of performance dialogue or debate performance
      • Unlike the Yakshagana performance, in the conventional ‘talamaddale,’ the artists sit across in a place without any costumes and engage in testing their oratory skills based on the episode chosen.
      • If music is common for both Yakshagana performance and ‘talamaddale’, the latter has only spoken word without any dance or costumes.
      • Hence it is an art form minus dance, costumes and stage conventions.

[In News]

  • The traditional art of ‘talamaddale’, a variant of Yakshagana theatre, too has gone virtual in times of COVID-19.
  • Koothu goes virtual

Sub: Society
Topic: Social Welfare SC, ST and Backward Classes
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 3/7

Tribal upliftment initiatives

Tribal Cooperative Marketing Federation of India [TRIFED]

  • TRIFED administered by Ministry of Tribal Affairs, has its key objectives of market developer and service provider. TRIFED is the only body of the Government of India at the national level engaged in marketing development of tribal products including art & craft items.
  • It was established in August 1987 under the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act.
  •  Initiatives
    • Tribes India - TRIFED owned shops for marketing tribal products
    • Aadi Mahotsav and Tribal Artisan Melas (TAMs) - for showcasing tribal crafts

Van Dhan Yojana

  • Launched in 2018 by Ministry of Tribal Affairs and TRIFED, it seeks to improve tribal incomes through value addition of tribal products.
  • At unit level, aggregation of produce would be done by Self Help Groups having about 30 members each forming Van Dhan Vikas ‘Samuh’.
  •  cluster of ten such SHGs within the same village shall form a 'Van Dhan Vikas Kendra'. 
  • The establishment of "Van Dhan Vikas Kendra" is for providing skill upgradation and capacity building training and setting up of primary processing and value addition facility. 

Tribes in focus

  • Assam
    • Bodo, Misings, Deoris, Rabhas, Sonowal-Kacharis, Tiwas
  • Kerala
    • Cholanaikar 
  • Odisha
    • Santhal, Zuang, Sawara, Karia, Khond,
  • Tripura
    • Bru/Reang 

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Assamese language made compulsory in all schools, both public and private, including the Kendriya Vidyalayas, from Classes I to X.

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Prevention and Security
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 4/7

Central Police Organization

Central Police Organization refers to police forces under the aegis of Ministry of Home Affairs - Intelligence Bureau (IB); Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI); Bureau of Police Research & Development. (BPRD); National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB); National Investigation Agency (NIA); Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy, Hyderabad; North Eastern Police Academy, Shillong; National Institute of Criminology & Forensic Science. (NICFS); and National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

  • CBI is the premier investigating police agency in India
  • It functions under Department of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances,
  • CBI is not a statutory body, and derives its powers from DSPE Act, 1946
  • History
    • CBI was formed through a Home Ministry resolution dated 1963,
    • Its history can be traced back to 1941 in Special Police Establishment (SPE).
    • Later Delhi Special Police Establishment Act,1946 (DSPE) transferred SPE to Home Department, and finally it acquired its name of CBI in 1963, based on Santhanam Committee recommendations.
  • Composition
    • Based on Lokayukta Act, 2013, CBI is to be headed by a director, based on recommendation from a three member committee of Prime Minister, Leader of opposition (or largest party), and CJI or supreme court judge.
    • Central Government shall appoint officers of the rank of SP and above in the CBI, on the recommendation of a committee consisting of the Central Vigilance Commissioner as Chairperson, the Vigilance Commissioners, the Secretary of the Home Ministry and the Secretary of the Department of Personnel.
    • CBI director's tenure can not be less than 2 years.
  • Investigation
    • CBI is required to obtain the prior approval of the Central Government before conducting any inquiry or investigation into an offence committed by officers of the rank of joint secretary and above in the Central Government and its authorities
    • CBI acts as the 'National Central Bureau' of Interpol in India, since 1966. All matters relating to the NCB are, however, dealt by the Ministry of Home Affairs,
    • Special Police Establishment (SPE) - A division of CBI, enjoys concurrent power of investigation under DSPE, 1946 along with state police forces. SPE takes cases which substantially concern Central or State Government affairs. SPE can also take up cases against employees of public undertakings or statutory bodies established and financed by the Central Government.

National Investigation Agency (NIA)

National Investigation Agency (NIA) was formed in the aftermath of Mumbai terror attacks

  • National Investigation Agency Act, 2008
    • NIA Act provides for setting up an agency at the central level with powers to probe terrorism and other crimes having national ramifications.
    • NIA is headed by a Director-General, appointed by central government, who has the same power as Director General of Police
    • The Act does not curtail powers of State Government to investigate and prosecute.
    • The Act makes the National Investigation Agency the only truly federal agency in the country, more powerful than the CBI
  • National Investigation Agency (Amendment) Bill, 2019
    • NIA can also investigate offences related to human trafficking, counterfeit currency, cyber-terrorism, offences under Explosive Substances Act, 1908 and manufacture or sales of the prohibited arms
    • Central and State governments can, on consulting High Court, designate Sessions Courts as Special Courts for the trial of scheduled offences.
  • Investigation
    • An investigation can be initiated based on report filed by State government to Central government, on any scheduled offence (as defined in Clause 2).
      • The NIA can only investigate cases which are listed in the Act’s schedule, which largely deal with the security and integrity of the country.
    • Central Government can transfer back case from NIA to state government.
    • Central Government can also suo-moto direct the agency to investigate, if it is of opinion a scheduled offence has been committed.
      • [In news] State Government oppose this
    • Central Government can constitute Special Courts to take cognizance of any scheduled offence with highest priority on day-to-day basis
    • Till NIA takes up the case, it shall be the duty of officer-in-charge of police station to continue investigation

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

  • NCRB was set up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators
  • It was set up based on the recommendation of the Task force and National Police Commission by merging the Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), Statistical Branch of BPR&D, Inter State Criminals Data Branch of CBI and Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI.
  • Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) - CCTNS was created in 2009 by Ministry of Home Affairs, and approved by Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA), with following objectives:
    • Creating State and Central level databases on crime and criminals. All State police are mandated to file FIRs in the CCTNS
    • Enable easy sharing of real-time information/ intelligence across police stations, districts and States.
    • Improved investigation and crime prevention.
    • Improved service delivery to the public/ stakeholders through Citizen Portals.

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • U.S. authorities have informed India about the provisional arrest of Tahawwur Rana, one of the key players in the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack, as he is "proposed to be extradited" in a case registered by the National Investigation Agency (NIA)
    • Gruesome violence by State in Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu
    • Kerala gold smuggling case
    • National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) has signed a memorandum of understanding with the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) to access the centralised online database on FIRs and stolen vehicles.
  • Aug, 20
    • Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) on Wednesday issued a notification allowing the transfer of Sushant Singh Rajput death case to the CBI

Sub: Geography
Topic: Environment Ecosystem Vegetation and Wildlife
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 5/7

Animal Protection


Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972

The main object of the Act is to provide protection to the wild animals birds and plants. Salient features:

  • Hunting of all wild animals except vermin prohibited, with exceptions.
    • Boars have been declared vermin
  • The Act empowers Central Government to declare certain areas as Sanctuaries or National Parks. Central Government is empowered to appoint the Director and Asst. Director Wild Life Preservation and other officials and employees
  • The Act empowers State Government to appoint Chief Wild Life Warden, Wild Life Wardens and on Honorary Wild Life Warden in each District and other officers and employees as may be necessary.
  • The State govt. by notification, may declare any area as national park; and any area within the reserved forest or territorial waters as a sanctuary. If there are tribals in the area, then their rights need to be met before declaration
  • Setting of 'Wild Life Advisory Board' in each State or Union Territory to advise the State government.
  • All zoos to be monitored by Central Zoo Authority (CZA). Thus CZA is a statutory body chaired by the Environment Minister
  • Any authorized person under this Act is entitled and has power of entry, search, arrest and detention of any premises.
  •  Schedules
    • Sechedule I and part II of Schedule II provide absolute protection - offences under these are prescribed the highest penalties
    • Penalties for Schedule III and Schedule IV are less and these animals are protected.
    • Schedule V includes the animals which may be hunted
    • Schedule VI contains the plants, which are prohibited from cultivation and planting. 

Advisory for dealing with import of exotic live species in India and declaration of stock

  • Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change issued an advisory in June, 2020 to streamline the process for import and possession of exotic live species in India.
  • The advisory has defined exotic animals as those that are mentioned in Appendices I, II and III of CITES, but not under the schedules of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • A person trying to import a live exotic animal will have to submit an application for grant of a licence to the Director General of Foreign Trade  (DGFT). He will also have to attach a No Objection Certificate (NOC) of the chief wildlife warden  (CWLW) of the state concerned
  • The processes under this Advisory shall be dealt online through the Parivesh Portal
    • PARIVESH portal - Single window clearances of Environment, Forests and Wildlife and Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Clearances. By Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change 

Indian Bodies

Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB)

  • WCCB is statutory multi-disciplinary body under the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) to combat organized wildlife crime.
  • WCCB is mandated under Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to collect and collate intelligence related to organized wildlife crime activities and to disseminate the same to State and other enforcement agencies
  • It also assists and advises the Customs authorities in inspection of the consignments of flora & fauna

Wildlife Institute of India (WII)

  • an autonomous institution under the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change, established in 1982

Global Bodies

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) / Washington Convention, 1975

  • CITES is an international treaty to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. India has ratified the convention
  • Does not have arbitration or dispute resolution powers.
  • CITES Appendices: Appendices I, II and III to the Convention are lists of species afforded different levels of protection. Species are proposed for inclusion or deletion from the Appendices I and II, at meetings of the Conference of the Parties (CoP), held approximately once every three years. However, species from Appendix III may be added or removed at any time and by any Party unilaterally
    • Appendix I: Appendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES-listed animals and plants. These species are threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade in specimens of these species except for non commercial purposes like scientific research.
    • Appendix II: Appendix II lists species that are not necessarily threatened with extinction but that may become unless trade is closely controlled. International trade is authorized with export permit, but no permit is required for import
    • Appendix III: Appendix III is a list of species that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the trade. For trading, an export permit and a certificate of origin is required.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) and Wildlife Crime Control Bureau busts syndicate smuggling exotic macaws
  • July, 20
    • Environment Ministry has reconstituted the Central Zoo Authority (CZA) 
    • KURMA app  - One of the major challenges for freshwater turtle conservation in the country is that wildlife crime prevention agencies are not sufficiently equipped to know how to distinguish one species from the other, or their protection status in accordance with CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) and the Wildlife Protection Act.
  • Aug, 20
    • Wildlife Institute of India (WII) has slammed a petroleum exploration major for not learning any lesson from two earlier oil well blowouts in Assam

Sub: Economics
Topic: Indian Economy
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 6/7

Economic Statistics


  • Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) 2018-19
    • India’s unemployment rate improved from the 45-year high of 6.1% in 2017-18 to 5.8% in 2018-19
    • Labour force participation rate also improved marginally, from 36.9% in 2017-18 to 37.5% in 2018-19
    • Women’s unemployment fell from 5.7% to 5.2%, while male unemployment only fell from 6.2% to 6%. 
    • Urban unemployment was still at a high of 7.7% in 2018-19, a marginal drop from 7.8% in 2017-18, while rural unemployment fell from 5.3% to 5%.
    • 4.6 crore households were benefitted from MGNREGS this year


  • India’s external debt rises to $558.5 billion in March 20, largely owing to commercial borrowings, Non resident deposits, and short term trade credit.
    • Non resident deposits (not to be confused with remittances) are deposits by non residents in Indian banks, which means if there is inflow then there is a liability of outflow.

Sub: Science And Technology
Topic: Research and Technology Communications and Electronics
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 7/7

Electronics Initiatives In Focus


  • Schemes for Electronics Manufacturing
    • By Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) to boost large-scale manufacturing of electronics in the country.
    • Schemes
      • Production Linked Incentive (PLI)
        • Offers a production linked incentive to boost domestic manufacturing and attract large investments in mobile phone manufacturing and specified electronic components
        • The scheme shall extend an incentive of 4% to 6% on incremental sales (over base year) of goods manufactured in India and covered under target segments, to eligible companies, for a period of five (5) years subsequent to the base year 2019; and has a budgetary outlay of ₹40,995 crores
        • Schemes will be implemented through a Nodal Agency which shall act as a  Project Management Agency (PMA) 
        • The government initially plans to incentivise 10 firms - five global and five local.
      • Scheme for Promotion of Manufacturing of Electronic Components and Semiconductors (SPECS)
        • For domestic manufacturing of electronic components and semiconductors in order to strengthen the electronics manufacturing ecosystem in the country
        • The scheme will provide financial incentive of 25% on capital expenditure for the identified list of electronic goods 
        • The Scheme is open for applications initially for 3 years from the date of its notification
        • The incentives will be available for investment made within 5 years from the date of acknowledgement of application
        • Schemes will be implemented through a Nodal Agency which shall act as a  Project Management Agency (PMA) 
      • Modified Electronics Manufacturing Clusters (EMC 2.0)
        • Providing support for creation of world class infrastructure along with common facilities and amenities, including Ready Built Factory (RBF) sheds / Plug and Play facilities for attracting major global electronics manufacturers along with their supply chain to set up units in the country.
        • The Scheme is open for receipt of applications for a period of 3 years from the date of notification. Further period of 5 years is available for disbursement of funds to the approved projects.
        • All the applications received under the EMC 2.0 Scheme through Project Management Agency (PMA) will be considered by Project Review Committee (PRC) for giving its recommendations to the PMA for according approval/ rejection of the projects.

[In News]

  • Aug, 20
    • Samsung, Apple’s three contract manufacturers Foxconn, Pegatron and Wistron, Lava and Micromax, have filed applications under the Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme that aims to boost local manufacturing of mobile phones and components.


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