News: June 29, 2020
- Article 371A - Special provision with respect to the state of Nagaland
- Article 371A (1) (b) - important functions like "transfer and posting of officials" entrusted with the maintenance of law and order of and above the district level will be with the approval of the Governor.
- Right to Health
- Right to Health is an integral part of Right to Life as enshrined in Article 21.
- Article 38 lays down the responsibility of the state to secure social order for the in promotion of the welfare of public health.
- Article 39 (e) pertains to the protection of health of the workers.
- Article 41 relates to providing public assistance by the state in special circumstances such as sickness, disability, old age etc.
- Article 42 protects the health of the infant and the mothers, i.e. in a way, it pertains to maternity benefit.
- Article 47 imposes a primary duty of the state in improvement of public health, in securing of justice, providing humane conditions of work for the workers, extension of benefits pertaining to sickness, disability, old age and maternity benefits. In addition to this, the state is under an obligation to prohibit the consumption of liquor in the interest of the public good.
- Article 48A: State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
- Article 164 (1A) : The total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State
- Article 48A - State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
- Article 51 A - Every citizen shall protect the environment.
- Article 159 : Oath or affirmation by Governor
- Article 174 : Empowers Governor to decide on session sittings of Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council, but no more than six months should pass between two sittings. It also allows Governor to Prorogue either House and dissolve Legislative Assembly.
- Article 175 : Governor may address the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council, and can require attendance of its members. Governor may also send message (pending Bills, functioning of House, order, etc) to either House, and the respective House will have to consider the said message
Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) codes
- Section 144
- Power to issue order in urgent cases of nuisance of apprehended danger.
- It authorizes the Executive Magistrate of any state or territory to issue an order to prohibit the assembly of four or more people in an area. According to the law, every member of such 'unlawful assembly' can be booked for engaging in rioting.
- Also referred as 'gag order'
Indian Penal Code (IPC) codes
- Section 188: Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant. It is sufficient that he knows of the order which he disobeys. It can lead to imprisonment of 6 months and/or a fine of Rs 10000
- Section 295: Damage to a place of worship or an object held sacred, punishable with imprisonment which may extend to two years, or fine, or both.
- Section 300 and 302: Mob Lynching - Lynching incidents can be dealt with under Section 300 and 302 of IPC. IPC does not specifically describes lynching
- Section 330 and 331: causing hurt or grievous hurt to extort confession
- Section 383: Extortion
- Section 497 and 498: Adultry
- Section 498A: Domestic violence
- Section 506: Criminal Intimidation. non bailable remand
- June, 20
- Madhya Pradesh Council of Ministers exceeding prescribed limit
- Section 188: Lockdown curbing, in Uttar Pradesh alone, as of 29th April, 2020, FIRs have been registered against 33094 people under Section 188 of IPC during the period of lockdown.
- July, 20
- Governor of West Bengal cites Article 159 of deteriorating condition of state
- 10 yr old dalit girl booked for sacrilege in Punjab
- Rajasthan Governor allows holding of Assembly session
- Aug, 20
- Section 188 - Cases of hospitals and ambulances overcharging public during pandemic
- Centre for Aviation (CAPA) : Analyses aviation and travel industry
- Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) : Not-for-profit organization in environment protect domain
- The Energy and Resources (TERI) : Research institute in New Delhi that specializes in the fields of energy, environment and sustainable development
- South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People (SANDRP) : SANDRP is a network of researchers and experts working on water and environmental issues.
- TRAFFIC, a leading wildlife trade monitoring network.
- It recorded a significant increase in poaching in India during the over two month lockdown period.
- Indian Medical Association - voluntary organization of doctors
- People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) : formed in India in 1976 by socialist leader Jayaprakash Narayan
- Centre for Holistic Development - For homeless citizens
- TRAFFIC: TRAFFIC is a leading non-governmental organisation working globally on trade in wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Recent paper called 'SPOTTED' by TRAFFIC India, revealed that of the total of 747 leopard deaths between 2015-2019 in India, 596 were linked to illegal wildlife trade and activities related to poaching. Leopard poaching was highest in Uttarakhand, Maharashtra
- Pinjra Tod - autonomous collective effort to ensure secure, affordable and not gender-discriminatory accommodation for women students across Delhi.
- Activists booked under UAPA in relation to communal violence
[In News: Latest]
- July, 20
- CAPA estimated that the second quarter beginning July too will be a washout. It reiterated that the market may only be left with 2-3 airlines if there is a delay in recapitalisation for the sector.
- Antibiotics are extensively misused in the dairy sector and its residues remain largely untested in milk, noted a recently published survey report by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).
- Aug, 20
- Leopard poaching highest in Uttarakhand, Maharashtra
National Security Council (NSC)
- National Security Council is an executive government agency established in 1998, is tasked with advising the Prime Minister's Office on matters of national security and strategic interest.
- NSC is headed by Prime Minister, with Ministers of Home Affairs, Defence, External Affairs and Finance as members. NSA serves as secretary to the council
- The three tier structure of the NSC comprises:
- Strategic Policy Group (SPG)
- National Security Advisor chairs the meetings of the SPG
- Cabinet secretary coordinates implementation of the group's decisions by Union Ministries and Departments, and State Governments.
- National Security Advisory Board (NSAB) - NSAB is a multi-disciplinary body. It undertakes long-term analysis and provides perspectives on issues of national security
- National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) - NSCS is an executive body under Allocation of Business rules, and serves as secretariat to NSC
- Strategic Policy Group (SPG)
National Security Adviser (NSA)
NSA is the principal advisor on national security matters to the prime minister. Bodies headed by NSA:
- China Study Group (CSG)
- CSG is an informal group constituted in 1997
- It comprises the Cabinet Secretary, Defence Secretary, Home Secretary, the Army chief, and the Director of Intelligence Bureau, among others.
- Defence Planning Committee (DPC)
- Set up in 2018, its member include all three Service Chiefs, Defence Secretary, Expenditure Secretary, Foreign Secretary
- Chief of Integrated Defence Staff, who is also the Member Secretary.
- National Technical Research Organisation
- It is the technical intelligence gathering agency of India under NSA
- It is a statutory body under Intelligence Organisations (Restriction of Rights) Act, 1985, and enjoys similar powers as the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW).
- Provides high quality imagery intelligence (IMINT) and signals intelligence (SIGINT) capabilities
- June, 20
- National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) to analyse the satellite images shared by foreign researchers on social media
- China Study Group (CSG), headed by National Security Advisor Ajit Doval, met on Saturday to discuss the prevailing situation along the LAC
Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
The main object of the Act is to provide protection to the wild animals birds and plants. Salient features:
- Hunting of all wild animals except vermin prohibited, with exceptions.
- Boars have been declared vermin
- The Act empowers Central Government to declare certain areas as Sanctuaries or National Parks. Central Government is empowered to appoint the Director and Asst. Director Wild Life Preservation and other officials and employees
- The Act empowers State Government to appoint Chief Wild Life Warden, Wild Life Wardens and on Honorary Wild Life Warden in each District and other officers and employees as may be necessary.
- The State govt. by notification, may declare any area as national park; and any area within the reserved forest or territorial waters as a sanctuary. If there are tribals in the area, then their rights need to be met before declaration
- Setting of 'Wild Life Advisory Board' in each State or Union Territory to advise the State government.
- All zoos to be monitored by Central Zoo Authority (CZA). Thus CZA is a statutory body chaired by the Environment Minister
- Any authorized person under this Act is entitled and has power of entry, search, arrest and detention of any premises.
- Sechedule I and part II of Schedule II provide absolute protection - offences under these are prescribed the highest penalties
- Penalties for Schedule III and Schedule IV are less and these animals are protected.
- Schedule V includes the animals which may be hunted
- Schedule VI contains the plants, which are prohibited from cultivation and planting.
Advisory for dealing with import of exotic live species in India and declaration of stock
- Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change issued an advisory in June, 2020 to streamline the process for import and possession of exotic live species in India.
- The advisory has defined exotic animals as those that are mentioned in Appendices I, II and III of CITES, but not under the schedules of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
- A person trying to import a live exotic animal will have to submit an application for grant of a licence to the Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT). He will also have to attach a No Objection Certificate (NOC) of the chief wildlife warden (CWLW) of the state concerned
- The processes under this Advisory shall be dealt online through the Parivesh Portal
- PARIVESH portal - Single window clearances of Environment, Forests and Wildlife and Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Clearances. By Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change
Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB)
- WCCB is statutory multi-disciplinary body under the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) to combat organized wildlife crime.
- WCCB is mandated under Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to collect and collate intelligence related to organized wildlife crime activities and to disseminate the same to State and other enforcement agencies
- It also assists and advises the Customs authorities in inspection of the consignments of flora & fauna
Wildlife Institute of India (WII)
- an autonomous institution under the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change, established in 1982
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) / Washington Convention, 1975
- CITES is an international treaty to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. India has ratified the convention
- Does not have arbitration or dispute resolution powers.
- CITES Appendices: Appendices I, II and III to the Convention are lists of species afforded different levels of protection. Species are proposed for inclusion or deletion from the Appendices I and II, at meetings of the Conference of the Parties (CoP), held approximately once every three years. However, species from Appendix III may be added or removed at any time and by any Party unilaterally
- Appendix I: Appendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES-listed animals and plants. These species are threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade in specimens of these species except for non commercial purposes like scientific research.
- Appendix II: Appendix II lists species that are not necessarily threatened with extinction but that may become unless trade is closely controlled. International trade is authorized with export permit, but no permit is required for import
- Appendix III: Appendix III is a list of species that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the trade. For trading, an export permit and a certificate of origin is required.
- June, 20
- Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) and Wildlife Crime Control Bureau busts syndicate smuggling exotic macaws
- July, 20
- Environment Ministry has reconstituted the Central Zoo Authority (CZA)
- KURMA app - One of the major challenges for freshwater turtle conservation in the country is that wildlife crime prevention agencies are not sufficiently equipped to know how to distinguish one species from the other, or their protection status in accordance with CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) and the Wildlife Protection Act.
- Aug, 20
- Wildlife Institute of India (WII) has slammed a petroleum exploration major for not learning any lesson from two earlier oil well blowouts in Assam
National Ayush Mission (NAM), 2014
- For providing cost effective AYUSH Services
- By Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare at centre. At the State level, the Mission will be governed and executed by a State AYUSH Society.
- The resource allocation to the States/UTs is proposed on the basis of population, backwardness and performance of the State/UT.
- e-AUSHADHI portal - By Ministry of State (IC) for AYUSH. For online licensing of AYUSH drugs
COVID-19 research guidelines
Ministry of AYUSH has released guidelines inviting scientists, researchers, clinicians to undertake research on COVID-19 through Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and Homeopathy:
- The proposal should be approved by their scientific advisory bodies and Institutional Ethics Committees
- If it is clinical trial, then the project should be registered with CTRI.
- The sample size should be based on statistical justification.
- Clinical research should be conducted as per AYUSH guidelines for Clinical Research or ICMR guidelines
- AYUSH registered practitioner/expert should be part of the study.
- Notify Ministry of AYUSH about timely progress.
- Patanjali's Coronil drug approval
- MiG-29 / Baaz
- Russian origin. Twin engine, single seater with a speed up to Mach 1.7
- SU-30 MKI :
- Russian origin. Licenced production done by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
- Twin seater, twin engine, carrying a variety of medium-range guided air to air missiles.
- It has a maximum speed of 2 Mach with a single in-flight range of 3,000 km
- Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas
- Tejas is a 4+ generation, supersonic, highly maneuverable, multi-role, smallest and lightest aircraft in its class
- Designed and developed by DRDO, it can carry beyond visual range weapons
- Tejas has a speed up to mach1.2 at low level and mach 1.8 at higher altitudes
- Mirage 2000 / Vajra
- French origin and maintained by HAL
- Single engine fourth-generation jet fighter, and has maximum speed of Mach 2.5
- MiG-21 Bison
- First supersonic jet aircraft ever, the MiG 21 has a single seater cockpit with maximum speed of 1.05 mach
- SEPECAT Jaguar / Shamsher
- French and British origin. Twin-engine, single-seater (IAF) ground attack aircraft
- Only the Indian Air Force is currently using the upgraded Jaguar in active duty.
- Jaguars can accurately deliver heavy bomb loads at long ranges at low altitudes, but is incapable of flying high altitudes with heavy payload
- Licenced production done by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
- French origin. Twin engine, single and double seater.
- Rafale has a speed up to mach1.1 at low level and mach 1.8 at higher altitudes and has mid air refueled capability
- India will be integrating European-made SCALP and Meteor prolonged-array beyond visible selection (BVR) air-to-air missile into Rafale
- The aircraft are equipped with two standoff weapons- Mica air-to-air missile with 70 km range, Meteor air-to-air missiles, with a range of over 100 km, and Scalp air-to-ground missiles, with a range of 300 km.
- Ka-226T : Russian origin. Light weight, twin engine utility helicopter
- AH-64E Apache : US origin. India contracted 22 Apache helicopters and 15 Chinook helicopters from Boeing through the Foreign Military Sales programme of the U.S. government in September 2015 under a $3 billion deal. Boeing’s joint venture in Hyderabad, Tata Boeing Aerospace Limited, has been producing aero-structures for the AH-64 Apache helicopter for both the U.S. Army and international customers
Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana (PMVVY), 2017
- A social security scheme for senior citizens (60 years and above), implemented through the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC)
- PMVVY gives a guaranteed payout of pension at a specified rate for 10 years.
- LIC invests the corpus in the market and generates market-related returns. If such returns are lower than the guaranteed return, the differential is subsidised by the Union government.
Senior Citizen Savings Scheme (SCSS)
- A social security scheme for senior citizens (60 years and above)
- The maturity of this scheme is 5 years with the option to extend it for 3 more years.
- Pinaka multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRS) (Mk-I and Mk-II) : Free-flight artillery rocket with different types of warhead & fuzes, a multi-tube launcher vehicle, a replenishment-cum-loader vehicle, a replenishment vehicle and a command post vehicle. Mk-I has a range of 38km, and Mk-II has a range of 60km.
- PINAKA Ammunition Support Vehicles : Loader cum Replenishment Vehicle (LCR) designed as Logistics Support Vehicles for Pinaka Multi Barrel Rocket System (MBRS)
- Long Range Land Attack Missile Systems (LRLACM)
- Indigenous, low altitude, sub sonic missile to be developed by DRDO.
- It will have a range in excess of 1,000 km and will be launched from a UVLM (Universal Vertical Launcher Module) of BrahMos.
- Astra Missiles
- ASTRA is a Beyond Visual Range (BVR) class of Air-to-Air Missile (AAM) system designed to be mounted on fighter aircraft
- Developed by DRDO, the missile is designed to engage and destroy highly manoeuvring supersonic aircraft. The missile has all weather day and night capability.
- The missile is being developed in multiple variants to meet specific requirements.
- S-400 Triumf / Growler
- Russian origin, to deliver by 2021 end
- Surface to air missile, with range of 250 km and capable of intercepting ballistic missiles across a 60 km radius.
- Indo-Russian joint venture
- Medium range (300km) ramjet supersonic cruise missile. Can be launched from submarines, jets or land
- The missile works on fire and forget principle. It is a two-stage missile with a solid propellant booster engine as its first stage which brings it to supersonic speed and then gets separated. The liquid ramjet or the second stage then takes the missile closer to 3 Mach speed in cruise phase