News: June 27, 2020

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Health
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 1/8

Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking

Global

  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
    • World Drug Report, 2020
      • In its annual report, UNODC cautions about hardships from pandemic could lead to increase in drug abuse.
      • India had fourth highest seize of opium in 2018 after Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.

India

Scheme of Prevention of Alcoholism and Substance (Drug) Abuse

  • Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment is the nodal Ministry for drug demand reduction in India, and has been implementing this scheme since 1985-86. Recent revisions were made in 2015 and a tollfree Drug-de-Addiction Helpline was started
  • The Ministry recognizes drug abuse as a psycho-socio-medical problem, which can be best handled by adoption of a family/community-based approach by active involvement of NGOs/CBOs.
  • Under this scheme, financial assistance up to 90% of the approved expenditure is given to the voluntary organizations and other eligible agencies for setting up/running Integrated Rehabilitation Centre for Addicts (IRCAs). In the case of North-Eastern States, Sikkim and Jammu & Kashmir, the quantum of assistance is 95% of the total admissible expenditure
  • The Scheme provides financial support to NGOs and employers mainly for the following items:
    • Awareness and Preventive Education
    • Drug Awareness and Counselling Centres (CC)
    • Integrated Rehabilitation Centres for Addicts (IRCAs)
    • Workplace Prevention Programme (WPP)
    • De-addiction Camps (ACDC)
    • NGO forum for Drug Abuse Prevention
    • Innovative Interventions to strengthen community based rehabilitation
    • Technical Exchange and Manpower development programme
    • Surveys, Studies, Evaluation and Research on the subjects covered under the scheme.

Drug Abuse

  • Article 47 of the Constitution provides that “The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavor to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.
  • Nasha Mukt Bharat / drug-free India campaign -  for 272 vulnerable districts, launched by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment 

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • World Drug Report by UNODC
  • Aug, 20
    • 38 people died over 48 hours in three districts of Punjab allegedly after consuming spurious liquor.
      • Death toll rises to 98

Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Policies and Welfare schemes
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 2/8

Relief Funds

Prime Minister's Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations Fund (PM CARES Fund)

  • Prime Minister is the ex-officio Chairman of the PM CARES Fund; and Minister of Defence, Minister of Home Affairs and Minister of Finance, Government of India are ex-officio Trustees of the Fund.
  • Prime Minister can also nominate three trustees to the Board of Trustees who shall serve in pro bono capacity
  • Donation to fund will qualify for 80G benefits for 100% under Income Tax. It will also qualify for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) expenditure. The fund will also get exemption from FCRA
  • PM CARES Fund is not a "public authority", so it is outside the gambit of RTI
    • Public Authority means any body constituted - under Constitution, or by law made by Parliament or state legislature, or by notification issued by government.
  • PM CARES, does not have a publicly available income and expenditure profile yet.
  • The Fund will be privately audited by an independent auditor.

 

Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF) 

  • Supported entirely with public contributions and does not get any budgetary support.
  • Since 1985, the management of the fund is entrusted entirely with the prime minister
  • The Prime Minister has the sole discretion of appointing a secretary to manage the fund assisted by a joint-secretary and an officer of the rank of director, all on an honorary basis.
  • Donation to fund will qualify for 80G benefits for 100% under Income Tax. It will also qualify for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) expenditure. The fund will also get exemption from FCRA
  • The resources of the PMNRF are utilized to provide assistance to persons affected by calamities 

[In News]

  • PM CARES Fund Trust has allocated 2,000 crore for the supply of 50,000 "Made-in-India" ventilators
  • Allegations on Congress diverting funds from PMNRF

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Prevention and Security
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 3/8

Detention, Prevention, And Security Laws

National Security Laws

* Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) was repealed in 1995, Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA) was repealed in 2004, 

National Security Act, 1980

  • The National security Act, empowers the Central Government and State Governments to detain a person to prevent him/her from acting in any manner against the welfare and security of the country, damaging the Indian relations with foreign countries, obstructing the maintenance and supply of essential services to the community
  • The suspect can be kept in jail for 12 months without any charge under the NSA. This period can further be extended.
  • A suspect can be kept in captivity for 5 days without assigning any reason; and up to 12 days after getting permission from state government
  • The arrested person is not entitled to the aid of any legal practitioner in any 

Public Safety Act

  • Public Security Act is equivalent to National Security Act in Jammu and Kashmir region.
  • Under the act, a person can be held for 2 years without trial and they need not be produced before a court
  • Any person can be booked under PSA when an administrative order is passed either by Divisional Commissioner (DC) or the District Magistrate (DM).  The District Magistrate (DM) communicates to the person within five days and informs him about the reason for the detention.
  • A person detained under the PSA shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of 24 hours

[In News]

  • NSA in Uttar Pradesh, and PSA in Jammu and Kashmir

Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Policies and Welfare schemes
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 4/8

Northern States Policies And Schemes In Focus

Chhattisgarh

  • Godhan Nyay Yojana: To protect crops from open grazing, prevent straying of animals on roads, procuring cow dung for composting and eco friendly activities

Delhi

  • Electric Vehicle Policy:
    • To boost the city’s economy, reduce pollution levels and generate employment in the transport sector. It also includes incentives for the purchase of electric vehicles.
    • To seek rapid adoption of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) so that they contribute to 25% of all new vehicle registrations by 2024
    • A State EV Fund’, to be created which will be funded through the air ambience fund, levy of additional taxes, cess on inefficient or polluting vehicles
    • Shall remain valid for a period of three years i.e. till 2023

Haryana

  • Parivar Pehchan Patra - PPP is an e-governance initiative that will enable the citizens to get the benefit of various Centre and State government schemes at their door-step in a fair and transparent manner. a separate Citizen Resources Information Department (CRID) has been established to give further momentum to the PPP programme.

Jammu and Kashmir

  • Jammu and Kashmir Grant Domicile Certificate (Procedure) Rules
    • Individuals who have resided in J&K for 15 years or have studied for seven years or appeared in examinations for class 10th or 12th can be eligible for the grant of a domicile certificate.
    • The eligibility also extends to West Pakistan refugees registered as migrants under the erstwhile state’s Relief and Rehabilitation Commission.
    • Tehsildar  (Executive Magistrate) can issue domicile certificate in most cases, and Relief and Rehabilitation Commissioner can issue certificattes for migrants. 

Madhya Pradesh

  • Satna-Bansagar Multi-Village Rural Water Supply Scheme: To bring treated water from the Bansagar Dam on the Son river to 1,019 villages in six blocks of the districts

Maharashtra

  • Magnetic Maharashtra 2.0 - To draw investment to state
  • BMC-Mpower 1on1 - 24x7 helpline to address mental health concerns of citizens in the wake of the novel coronavirus pandemic
  • Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj Research Training and Human Development Institute (SARTHI) - Non-Profit government company for research, policy advocacy, and training for socio-economic and education development of Maratha and Kunbi community

Punjab

  • Digital Punjab - To create a single interface for all grievances with government

Rajasthan

  • Indira Rasoi Yojana - for providing nutritious food to the poor and needy twice a day at concessional rates

[In News: Latest]

  • July, 20
    • Maharashtra Deputy Chief Minister Ajit Pawar on Thursday announced a financial aid of ₹8 crore to SARTHI
  • Aug, 20
    • Haryana to link welfare schemes through ‘Parivar Pehchan Patra’
    • Delhi government launches Electric Vehicle Policy

Sub: Society
Topic: Social Welfare Children and Women
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 5/8

Children Related Acts And Bodies

Acts

Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994 (PCPNDT)

The Act was enacted to stop female foeticides and arrest the declining sex ratio in India. 

  • The act banned prenatal sex determination
  • Central Supervisory Board (CSB) constituted under the Chairmanship of Minister for Health and Family Welfare has been further empowered for monitoring the implementation of the Act
  • State level Supervisory Boards in the line of the CSB constituted at the Centre has been introduced for monitoring and reviewing the implementation of the Act in States/UTs.
  • Appropriate Authorities are empowered with the powers of Civil Court for search, seizure and sealing the machines, equipments and records of the violators of law including sealing of premises and commissioning of witnesses
  • It has been made mandatory to maintain proper records in respect of the use of ultrasound machines and other equipments capable of detection of sex of foetus and also in respect of tests and procedures that may lead to preconception selection of sex.
  • The sale of ultrasound machines has been regulated through laying down the condition of sale only to the bodies registered under the Act.

Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO), 2012 Act

  • Comprehensive law to provide protection of children from the offences of sexual assault, pornography,  trafficking; while safeguarding the interests of the child at every stage of the judicial process by incorporating child-friendly mechanisms
  • The Act defines child age limit to be 18 years.
  • Puts legal duty to report, on a person with knowledge of sexual offence. Failing to do so invites imprisonment of six months
  • Police is required to report about sexual abuse to Child Welfare Committee (CWC) within 24 hours
  • Provides for Special Courts that conduct the trial in-camera and without revealing the identity of the child. The case must be disposed of within one year from the date the offence reported
  • Punishment
    • Seven years to life imprisonment for "penetrative sexual assault"
      • POCSO, (Amendment) Act, 2019 amends it to minimum ten years, and at least 20 years if the minor is below 16 years 
    • Ten years to life imprisonment for "aggravated penetrative sexual assault"
      • Aggravated cases involve assault committed by public servants, relatives, or when assault injures organs of the child or child is mentally ill
      • POCSO, (Amendment) Act, 2019 amends it to minimum twenty years
    • Three to five years of imprisonment for "sexual assault"
    • Five to seven years of imprisonment for "aggravated sexual assault"
      • "Aggravated sexual assault" includes cases where the offender is a relative, or if the assault injures the sexual organs of the child
      • POCSO, (Amendment) Act, 2019 adds two more offences to the definition of aggravated sexual assault - (i) assault committed during a natural calamity, and (ii) administrating any hormone or chemical substance to a child for the purpose of attaining early sexual maturity.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Case filed against marathi preacher Nivrutti Maharaj under PCPNDT
  • July, 20
    • POCSO - Father, three others held for sexual abuse of teen

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 6/8

National Security Council

National Security Council (NSC)

  • National Security Council is an executive government agency established in 1998, is tasked with advising the Prime Minister's Office on matters of national security and strategic interest.
  • NSC is headed by Prime Minister, with Ministers of Home Affairs, Defence, External Affairs and Finance as members. NSA serves as secretary to the council
  • The three tier structure of the NSC comprises:
    • Strategic Policy Group (SPG)
      • National Security Advisor chairs the meetings of the SPG
      • Cabinet secretary coordinates implementation of the group's decisions by Union Ministries and Departments, and State Governments.
    • National Security Advisory Board (NSAB) - NSAB is a multi-disciplinary body. It undertakes long-term analysis and provides perspectives on issues of national security
    • National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) - NSCS is an executive body under Allocation of Business rules, and serves as secretariat to NSC

National Security Adviser (NSA)

NSA is the principal advisor on national security matters to the prime minister. Bodies headed by NSA:

  • China Study Group (CSG)
    • CSG is an informal group constituted in 1997
    • It comprises the Cabinet Secretary, Defence Secretary, Home Secretary, the Army chief, and the Director of Intelligence Bureau, among others.
  • Defence Planning Committee (DPC)
    • Set up in 2018, its member include all three Service Chiefs, Defence Secretary, Expenditure Secretary, Foreign Secretary
    • Chief of Integrated Defence Staff, who is also the Member Secretary.
  • National Technical Research Organisation
    • It is the technical intelligence gathering agency of India under NSA
    • It is a statutory body under Intelligence Organisations (Restriction of Rights) Act, 1985, and enjoys similar powers as the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW).
    • Provides high quality imagery intelligence (IMINT) and signals intelligence (SIGINT) capabilities

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) to analyse the satellite images shared by foreign researchers on social media
    • China Study Group (CSG), headed by National Security Advisor Ajit Doval, met on Saturday to discuss the prevailing situation along the LAC

Sub: Geography
Topic: India Physical Setiings Resources
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 7/8

Fossil Fuels

Coal

  • Most of the world’s coal was formed in Carboniferous age (Gondwana coal), about 350 million years ago
  • Based on amount of carbon, ash and moisture content, coals are classified into
    • Lignite : First stage of coal, 40-55% carbon, prone to self combustion
      • Peat : precursor to coat formation, it is soft organic material of decayed plants
    • Bituminous coal: Second stage of coal, about 40-80% carbon. USed for electricity, coke and gas.
    • Anthracite : High concentration of carbon

Initiatives in focus

  • 100% FDI has been allowed in coal and lignite mining subject to provisions of Coal Mines (Special Provisions) Act, 2015 and the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957
  • FDI is also permitted for setting up processing plants like washeries provided company do not sell the washed or sized coal in the open market, but supply the processed coal back to those who are supplied them raw coal

Oil

  • Properties - upto 95% hydrocarbons, and rest is organic compounds like oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur
  • It is obtained from sedimentary rocks of earth, and formed 3 million years ago in tertiary period
  • India
    • In India, oil is mainly found in Mumbai High, Khambhat gulf, and Assam
    • Assam is the oldest oil producing state in India. Oil is mainly found in upper Assam area along Brahmaputra valley
      • Baghjan natural gas - Near Maguri-Motapung wetland and close to the Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
  • Extraction
    • Fracking -  Fracking or hydraulic fracturing is the process of creating fractures in rocks and rock formations by injecting specialized fluid into cracks to force them to open further. 

Global Bodies

  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
    • OPEC was founded in 1960 to coordinate the petroleum policies of its members and mutual corporation
    • Ecuador, Indonesia and Qatar were former members

Natural Gas

  • Consists mainly methane along with small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, sulfur
  • It is mainly found dissolved in oil or as gas cap above oil.
  • 70% of India’s natural gas reserves are found in the Bombay High basin and in Gujarat especially in Gulf of Khambhat or Cambay
  • Offshore gas reserves are also located in Assam, Andhra Pradesh coast (Krishna Godavari Basin) and Tamil Nadu coast (Cauvery Basin)

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • 100% FDI has been allowed in coal and lignite mining 
    • OPEC struggling in pandemic

Sub: International Relations
Topic: International institutions, Agencies and Fora Regional
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 8/8

India And South East Asia

Bodies

ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)

  • ASEAN was established with the signing of an ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the ministers of the founding countries - Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. It was then joined by Brunei, Vietnam Laos, Myanmar and finally Cambodia.
  • ASEAN+3 includes China, Japan and Korea
  • ASEAN Plus Six  - China, Korea, Japan, India, Australia and New Zealand
  • India
    • ASEAN is our fourth largest trading partner and India is their seventh largest trading partner
    • India has taken other policy initiatives in the region that involve some members of ASEAN like BIMSTEC, MGC etc.India is also an active participant in several regional forums like the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), East Asia Summit (EAS), ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting + (ADMM+) and Expanded ASEAN Maritime Forum (EAMF)
  • East Asia Summit (EAS)
    • EAS meetings are held after annual ASEAN leaders' meetings
    • It includes ASEAN countries and Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, United States and Russia
    • India has been a member since its inception in 2005
  • Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
    • RCEP is proposed free trade agreement (FTA) between ASEAN countries and their FTA partners - Australia, China, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea
    • India opted out of RCEP in 2019, having apprehensions about competing with Chinese imports.

Geography

Islands

  • South China Sea
    • Spratly Islands
      • Johnson South Reef - reef in southwest portion of the Union Banks in the Spratly Islands
    • Nantua islands - near Indonesia

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • RCEP hoping for India rejoining
  • July, 20
    • Japan accuses China for sending its ships to Senkaku Islands

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