News: June 26, 2020

Sub: Economics
Topic: Banking, Finance and Tax System Finance and Banking - India
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 1/8

Reserve Bank of India (RBI)

Established under Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, RBI controls monetary and other banking policies of the government.

RBI has four subsidiaries, earlier National Housing Bank(NHB) was also a subsidiary of RBI

  1. Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation of India(DICGC)
  2. Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran Private Limited(BRBNMPL)
  3. Reserve Bank Information Technology Private Limited (ReBIT)
  4. Indian Financial Technology and Allied Services (IFTAS)

Initiatives in focus

Payments Infrastructure Development Fund (PIDF)

  • To encourage acquirers to deploy Points of Sale (PoS) infrastructure - both physical and digital modes - in tier-3 to tier-6 centres and north eastern states.
  • RBI will make an initial contribution of ₹250 crore to the PIDF, covering half of the fund, while the remaining contribution will be from card-issuing banks and card networks operating in the country
  • PIDF will be governed through an Advisory Council and managed and administered by RBI.
  • RBI will also contribute to yearly shortfalls, if necessary.

RBI loan moratorium scheme

  • As per the RBI circular, banks and other financial institutions are permitted to provide a moratorium of three months for all term loan installments which are due for payment between 1 March and 31 May.
    • It has been extended till August
    • Banks can restructure loans from large corporates, MSMEs, and individuals to help stem the rising stress on incomes and balance sheets. Individual borrower's loan can be extended by 2 years by year end.
  • Term loans will include all kinds of retail loans such as vehicle loan, home loan, and personal loan, agricultural term loans as well as crop loans. It will also include credit card dues
  • The RBI has asked all banks, financial institutions including housing finance companies, non-banking finance companies, small finance banks, regional rural banks, small finance banks, local area banks to provide moratorium.
  • Interest will continue to be charged during the moratorium

Others

  • All urban and multi-State cooperative banks to come under the direct supervision of the RBI
    • Currently cooperative banks are regulated by their respective states under Registrar of Cooperative Societies
  • RBI has asked all banks / NBFCs to disclose names of all digital lending platforms on their websites. Also immediately, after sanction but before execution of the loan agreement, the sanction letter shall be issued to the borrower on the letter head of the bank/ NBFC concerned

Terminology

  • MFIs - MFI are small lending institutions that give tiny loans to low-income borrowers typically at an interest rate of 22-25 percent. They mainly source money from banks.
  • Moratorium  - A moratorium period is a time during the loan term when the borrower is not required to make any repayment.

Tools

RBI uses many tools to regulate credit and monetary policy in country.

  • Repo Rate -The rate of interest at which RBI lends money to banks, RBI buys government bonds and agrees to sell them back to banks at a fixed rate.
    • Repo Linked Lending Rate (RLLR) = Repo Rate + Margin charged by the bank.
    • Repo Rate is used for controlling inflation, and Reverse Repo Rate is used for controlling money supply. 
  • Reverse Repo Rate: The interest rate at which RBI borrows funds from banks for the short term, often for one day. Reverse Repo Rate is always lower than Repo Rate. An increase in Reverse Repo Rate provides incentive to banks to park their surplus funds in RBI and buy government bonds in return. thus decrease liquidity in market.
  • Open Market Operations (OMO): Open Market Operations is the sale and purchase of government securities and treasury bills by RBI to regulate money supply in economy
  • Long Term Repo Operations (LTRO): Under LTRO, RBI provides longer term (one to three year) loans to banks at the prevailing Repo Rate. As banks get long-term funds at lower rates, their cost of funds falls. In turn, they reduce interest rates for borrowers.
    • Targeted LTRO / TLRTO: Under Targeted LRTO funds are to be deployed in investment grade bonds, commercial paper (CPs) and non-convertible debentures (NCDs) of Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs) and Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs)
  • Operation Twist
    • Operation twist involves the simultaneous purchase and sale of government securities to bring down long-term interest rates, and push up short-term rates. Business investment and housing demand are primarily determined by longer-term interest rates, so this is done to reduce long term interest rates,
    • RBI will sell short term bonds and use the funds to buy long term bonds. This raises their demand and hence prices., and this inflated price reduces the yield (interest) of the borrower, thus lowering the interest on long term bonds.
      • Bond yields and prices are inversely correlated.

Fund lending

  • Base Rate
    • Base Rate is the minimum interest rate of a bank below which it cannot lend, except in some cases allowed by the RBI.
    • It varied from bank to bank.
    • Base rate calculation is based on cost of funds, margin or profit, operating expenses and cost of maintaining cash reserve ratio
  • MCLR (Marginal Cost of funds based Lending Rate) - From financial year 2016-17 banks in country shifted from base rate to MCLR to compute their lending rate, as banks were reluctant to change their base rates to reflect Repo Rate.
    • MCLR refers to the minimum interest rate of a bank below which it cannot lend
    • MCLR is a tenor linked internal benchmark. The actual lending rates are determined by adding the components of spread to the MCLR. Banks will review and publish their MCLR of different maturities, every month, on a pre-announced date. 
      • Tenor means the amount of time left for the repayment of a loan
    • MCLR is based on marginal cost of funds, tenor premium, operating expenses and cost of maintaining cash reserve ratio.
      • Marginal cost of funds = (92% x Marginal cost of borrowings) + (8% x Return on net worth) 
      • Marginal cost of borrowing refers to - average rates at which deposits of a similar maturity were raised in the specified period preceding the date of review, weighed by their outstanding balance in the bank’s books. It is based on  interest rate which banks pay to depositors.
    •  MCLR is largely determined by marginal cost of funds and especially by deposit rates and Repo Rates
    • Banks were still lethargic to lower their rates, and usually offered home loans linked to six month or one-year MCLR, So RBI, in October 2019 announced that all new floating rate personal or retail loans (housing, auto etc.) shall be linked to an external benchmark. 
  • External benchmark rate (EBR): Lending rate based on an external benchmark.
    • Banks are free to choose from any of the external benchmark mentioned below:
      • RBI's Repo Rate
      • Government of India 3-Months Treasury Bill yield published by the Financial Benchmark India Private Ltd (FBIL)
      • Government of India 6-Months Treasury Bill yield published by the FBIL
      • Any other benchmark market interest rate published by the FBIL
    • Interest rate applicable on home loans = external benchmark + bank's spread (margin) + risk premium

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • A supreme court bench asked RBI, whether the moratorium would eventually lead to payment of interest on interest deferred for six months. Solicitor-General said that moratorium is a deferment and not a waiver, and waiving the interest completely will not be easy for banks and MFIs as they have to pay interest to their depositors.
    • In wake of PMC scam, and to bring more transparency, all urban and multi-State cooperative banks under the direct supervision of the RBI. CPI(M) is opposing the move
    • RBI comes heavily on banks/NBFCs as it found violations of fair practices (high interest, low transparency) by digital platforms that were acting as agency of theses lenders.
  • July, 20
    • RBI says it deployed several tools to maintain abundant liquidity in market.
  • Aug, 20
    • RBI allows loan restructuring but has not extended the moratorium in its third review of the monetary policy since the COVID-19 pandemic

Sub: Politics
Topic: Judiciary
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 2/8

Codes And Articles In Focus

Articles

  • States
    • Nagaland
      • Article 371A - Special provision with respect to the state of Nagaland
      • Article 371A (1) (b) - important functions like "transfer and posting of officials" entrusted with the maintenance of law and order of and above the district level will be with the approval of the Governor.
  • Right to Health
    • Right to Health is an integral part of Right to Life as enshrined in Article 21.
    • Article 38 lays down the responsibility of the state to secure social order for the in promotion of the welfare of public health.
    • Article 39 (e) pertains to the protection of health of the workers.
    • Article 41 relates to providing public assistance by the state in special circumstances such as sickness, disability, old age etc.
    • Article 42 protects the health of the infant and the mothers, i.e. in a way, it pertains to maternity benefit.
    • Article 47 imposes a primary duty of the state in improvement of public health, in securing of justice, providing humane conditions of work for the workers, extension of benefits pertaining to sickness, disability, old age and maternity benefits. In addition to this, the state is under an obligation to prohibit the consumption of liquor in the interest of the public good.
    • Article 48A: State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
    • Article 164 (1A) : The total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State
  • Environment
    • Article 48A - State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
    • Article 51 A - Every citizen shall protect the environment.
  • Governor
    • Article 159 :  Oath or affirmation by Governor 
    • Article 174 :  Empowers Governor to decide on session sittings of Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council, but no more than six months should pass between two sittings. It also allows Governor to Prorogue either House and dissolve Legislative Assembly.
    • Article 175 : Governor may address the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council, and can require attendance of its members. Governor may also send message (pending Bills, functioning of House, order, etc) to either House, and the respective House will have to consider the said message

Codes

Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC)  codes

  • Section 144
    • Power to issue order in urgent cases of nuisance of apprehended danger.
    • It authorizes the Executive Magistrate of any state or territory to issue an order to prohibit the assembly of four or more people in an area. According to the law, every member of such 'unlawful assembly' can be booked for engaging in rioting.
    • Also referred as 'gag order'

Indian Penal Code (IPC) codes

  • Section 188:  Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant. It is sufficient that he knows of the order which he disobeys. It can lead to imprisonment of 6 months and/or a fine of Rs 10000
  • Section 295: Damage to a place of worship or an object held sacred, punishable with imprisonment which may extend to two years, or fine, or both.
  • Section 300 and 302: Mob Lynching - Lynching incidents can be dealt with under Section 300 and 302 of IPC. IPC does not specifically describes lynching
  • Section 330 and 331: causing hurt or grievous hurt to extort confession 
  • Section 383: Extortion
  • Section 497 and 498: Adultry
  • Section 498A: Domestic violence
  • Section 506: Criminal Intimidation. non bailable remand

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Madhya Pradesh Council of Ministers exceeding prescribed limit
    • Section 188: Lockdown curbing, in Uttar Pradesh alone, as of 29th April, 2020, FIRs have been registered against 33094 people under Section 188 of IPC during the period of lockdown.
  • July, 20
    • Governor of West Bengal cites Article 159 of deteriorating condition of state
    • 10 yr old dalit girl booked for sacrilege in Punjab
    • Rajasthan Governor allows holding of Assembly session
  • Aug, 20
    • Section 188 - Cases of hospitals and ambulances overcharging public during pandemic

Sub: Geography
Topic: Environment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 3/8

Environmental Bodies In India

Acts

Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA)

  • EPA was introduced as an umbrella legislation that provides a holistic framework for the protection and improvement to the environment.
  • Environment Protection Act, 1986 was passed and enacted under Article 253 of constitution
  • It clearly defined the term ‘environment’ as a reference for all undertakings that were concerned with the environment 
  • EPA allowed for formulation of guidelines for the management of hazardous substances and national environmental standards.

Environmental impact assessment (EIA)

Environmental impact assessment is a planning process to predict, assess, and mitigate the potential impacts of project development on the biophysical and human environment. In 1994, the Union ministry of environment and forests (MoEF), under the Environmental (Protection) Act 1986, promulgated EIA notification, making Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory for expansion or modernization of any activity or for setting up new projects listed in Schedule 1 of the notification. An EIA notification is issued under Section 3 of the Environment Protection Act.

draft Environment Impact Assessment Notification, 2020

Released by Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC), EIA Notification 2020 is to replace and supersede EIA Notification 2006.

  • Categorization of projects and activities: All projects are divided into three categories
    • Category ‘A’: Category ‘A’ projects, including expansion and modernization shall require prior Environment Clearance from the Ministry
    • Category ‘B1’: Category ‘B1’ projects, including expansion and modernization of existing projects, excluding those near sensitive or protected zones (Polluted areas, protected areas, inter state boundaries, etc), shall require prior Environment Clearance from State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) or Union Territory Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (UTEIAA)
    • Category ‘B2’: Category ‘B2’ projects that are required to be placed before Appraisal Committee as specified in the Schedule, shall require prior Environment Clearance from SEIAA or UTEIAA. Such projects shall not require any Scoping
  • Linear projects such as roads and pipelines in border areas (100km from boundary) will not require any public hearing
  • All inland waterways projects and expansion/widening of national highways will be exempted from public clearance.
  • Post-facto clearance: Starting a project before obtaining environmental approvals will no longer be a violation, and it can be regularised post-facto. 
  • Reduces public consultation hearings to a maximum of 40 days, and reduces response submission during public hearing to 20 days
  • For environment assessment, baseline data will be collected once (twice for river valley projects)
  • Section 14 provides exemption from public consultation, also limiting the scope of public involvement to the districts concerned, in the case of national parks and sanctuaries where pipeline infrastructure will pass.
  • Section 26 provides a list of projects that would not attract environmental clearance or permission, including coal mining and seismic surveys for oil, methane and shale gas on some lands

Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974

To provide for prevention, control and abatement of water pollution and the maintenance or restoration of the wholesomeness of water. The Act provides for constitution of central and State Boards for preventing water pollution

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)

  • CPCB is a statutory organisation, constituted in 1974, under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. 
  • It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests of the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. 
  • CPCB is under mandate - to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution; and to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution.
  • Recent Initiatives
    • CPCB will classify railway stations under the red, orange and green categories based on the quantity of waste water generated.

Bodies

National Green Tribunal (NGT)

  • National Green Tribunal was set under National Green Tribunal Act 2010, for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources
  • NGT is guided by principles of natural justice. NGT is vested with the powers of a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure for discharging its functions. NGT does not have suo moto power to take a case.
  • NGT has original jurisdiction over all civil cases involving a substantial question relating to environment 
    • Substantial questions are those which affect the community at large, and not just individuals or groups of individuals.
  • NGT consist of both judicial and expert members. Judicial members must have been judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts. Chairperson should either be a judge of Supreme Court or Chief Justice of High Court
  • NGT has the power to hear all civil cases relating to environmental issues and questions that are linked to the implementation of laws listed in Schedule I of the NGT Act. These are:
    1. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
    2. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977
    3. The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
    4. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
    5. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA)
    6. The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
    7. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002

[In news]

  • June, 20
    • EPA, TERI - Baghjan oil field fire in Tinsukia district, Assam
    • NGT imposes fine on Karnataka government over pollution in Kithiganahalli Lake
    • NGT imposes fine on LG chem for Visakhapatnam gas leak
  • July, 20
    • Parliamentary panel to discuss draft EIA
  • Aug, 20
    • NGT orders OIL to disburse compensation ranging from ₹2.5 lakh to ₹25 lakh to those affected by the oil well blowout in Assam’s Tinsukia

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 4/8

Employment Schemes In Focus

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan (PM-GKRA), 2020

  • To empower and provide livelihood opportunities in areas/villages witnessing large number of returnee migrant workers affected by the devastating COVID-19
  • This Abhiyaan of 125 days, will work in mission mode, will focus on districts with a large concentration of returnee migrant workers in 6 states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.
  • Public works to be undertaken during this campaign will have a resource envelope of Rs. 50,000 crores.
  • Ministry of Rural Development is the nodal Ministry for this campaign and the campaign will be implemented in close coordination with the State Governments. 
  • Central Nodal Officers of the rank of Joint Secretary and above will be appointed to oversee the effective and timely implementation of various schemes in the identified districts. 

The Urban Learning Internship Program (TULIP)

  • A program for providing internship opportunities to fresh graduates in all Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and Smart Cities across the country
  • Implemented through a partnership between Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) and AICTE.
  • At the State level, TULIP will be supported by the Urban Development departments in providing a clear roadmap for the ULBs/smart cities to adopt TULIP in their respective organisations.
  • Eligibility : Open to Indian Citizens who graduate from an undergraduate program (both AICTE and non-AICTE affiliated) can apply within 18 months from graduating. Indian Students whose results have been declared and have a passing percentage can apply
  • Certificate will be given on course completion on TULIP portal. Stipened to be decided by respective ULB/smart city

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan launched on June 20 to boost employment and livelihood opportunities for migrant workers returning to villages, in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak
    • Karnataka Chief Minister B.S. Yediyurappa asking for PMGKY extension
    • TULIP - Centre launches internship scheme for 25,000 graduates

Sub: Science And Technology
Topic: Research and Technology Information Technology
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 5/8

Apps And Portals In Focus

Centre

Apps

  • Aarogya Setu 
    • Developed by the National Informatics Centre (NIC) under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY)
    • Its self assessment test is based on ICMR guidelines
    • When someone is tested COVID-19 positive, the testing lab shares this information with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR),  the nodal government agency for COVID-19 testing, which then shares it with the Aarogya Setu server.
    • The App screen gives color codes green, yellow, orange, or red after doing risk assessment.
    • Aarogya Setu is not mandatory for air, train travel
  • e-Choupal 4.0 - By ITC Agri, and will provide end-to-end and personalized services to farmers on weather and markets on a real-time basis.
  • SWAYAM - Online portal by UGC, providing free online courses, however fees is required for certificate.
  • KURMA
    • App for turtle conservation. Provides a database for species identification, and location for nearest rescue centre
    • Developed by Indian Turtle Conservation Action Network (ITCAN) in collaboration with the Turtle Survival Alliance-India and Wildlife Conservation Society-India

Portals

  • National Mission on Government e Marketplace (GeM), 2018
    • A dedicated e market, set up by Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce and Industry. It is used for different goods & services procured by Government Organisations / Departments / PSUs.
      • Some States / UTs have signed an MoU to make procurement through GeM mandatory
      • Before GeM, Directorate General of Supplies and Disposals (DGS&D) was used for facilitating procurement.
    • Provides online, end to end solution for procurement of commonly used goods and services for all Central Government Departments, State Governments and PSUs
    • "Country of origin" must on products
  • National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID)
    • A master database of 21 databases designed to provide real-time information to fight terror and crime to Union Cabinet cleared central agencies
    • Under Ministry of Home Affairs. First conceptualised in 2009, the project aims to go live by December 31, 2020.
    • National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) has signed a memorandum of understanding with the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) to access the centralised online database on FIRs and stolen vehicles.
  • Aatmanirbhar Skilled Employee Employer Mapping’ (ASEEM) - to help skilled people find sustainable livelihood opportunities

States

  • Delhi
    • Assess Koro na - Collecting data with a door to door survey done by Delhi government. It is done through BLO (Booth Level Officer), municipal corporation workers, ASHA workers, and ANM (Auxiliary Nurse Midwife)
    • Rozgaar Bazaar - focusses on those who lost their jobs and businesses during pandemic
  • Maharashtra
    • Mahajobs - job portal

[In News: Latest]

  • Delhi launches Rozgaar Bazaar for helping those who lost jobs in pandemic

Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Agencies and Bodies
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 6/8

Corruption

Enforcement Directorate (ED)

  • Directorate of Enforcement is a specialized financial investigation agency under the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance
  • It comprises officers from Indian Revenue Service, Indian Police Service and the Indian Administrative Service.
  • Enforcement Directorate enforces following two Acts
    • Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999 (FEMA) 
      • FEMA allows only authorised person (defined by Reserve Bank) to hold, transfer and exchange in foreign securities
      • It imposes a penalty of upto three times of original sum involved for contravening Acts' provision, or conditions subject for authorisation
      • Failing to make full payment of the penalty imposed under section 13, within a period of ninety days from the date on which the notice is served will make defaulter liable to civil imprisonment.
      • Section 37 empowers Enforcement Directorate to exercise the power of investigation for any contravention that may occur under FEMA.
    • Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002 (PMLA)
      • The Act came into force in 2005, and provides for confiscation of property derived from money laundering, impose penalty and prison on confiscators
      • Financial Intelligence Unit - India (FIU-IND) is the central, national agency responsible for receiving, processing, analyzing and disseminating information relating to suspect financial transactions to enforcement agencies and foreign FIUs.
      • Investigation is to be carried by Enforcement Directorate.

State anti corruption bodies

Some states have their own anti-corruption agencies and courts

  • Anti-Corruption Bureau - Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan
  • Anti Corruption Organisation - uttar pradesh
  • Lokayukts - Kerala

[In News]

  • Rajasthan ACB to investigate MLA poaching in state
  • ED - Nirav Modi in PNB case. Sterling Biotech case

Sub: Politics
Topic: Judiciary
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 7/8

Detention And Prevention

Acts

Arms Act, 1959

  • Is an Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to arms and ammunition
  • Arms Act (Amendment), 2019 - The amendment reduces number of licensed firearm to 1, bans firearm manufacturing without license, 10 years to life imprisonment for taking firearm from a police personal, upto 2 years imprisonment for using firearms in celebratory gunfire

Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967

  • UAPA enables the government to impose ‘reasonable restrictions’ on the fundamental right to association (Article 19). The executive could declare any organization as unlawful and designate and criminalize what it deemed as ‘unlawful activities’, under Section 3.
  • The 2004 amendment defined terrorism act as a crime and granted powers to the central government to declare organizations as “terrorist” and impose a ban against them
  • Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019
    • Bill additionally empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorists 
    • if the investigation is conducted by an officer of the National Investigation Agency (NIA), the approval of the Director General of NIA would be required for seizing properties that may be connected with terrorism
      • Under the Act, an investigating officer is required to obtain the prior approval of the Director General of Police for seizing properties
    • The Bill empowers the officers of the NIA, of the rank of Inspector or above, to investigate cases.
      •  Under the Act, investigation of cases may be conducted by officers of the rank of Deputy Superintendent or Assistant Commissioner of Police or above.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Delhi riots
    • UAPA : Elgaar Parishad case / Bhima-Koregaon case, Sharjeel Imam case

Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Agencies and Bodies
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 8/8

Pressure Groups In Focus

Aviation

  • Centre for Aviation (CAPA) : Analyses aviation and travel industry

Environment

  • Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) : Not-for-profit organization in environment protect domain
  • The Energy and Resources (TERI) : Research institute in New Delhi that specializes in the fields of energy, environment and sustainable development
  • South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People (SANDRP) : SANDRP is a network of researchers and experts working on water and environmental issues.
  • TRAFFIC, a leading wildlife trade monitoring network.
    • It recorded a significant increase in poaching in India during the over two month lockdown period.

Health

  • Indian Medical Association - voluntary organization of doctors

Human Rights

  • People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) : formed in India in 1976 by socialist leader Jayaprakash Narayan

Rehabilitation

  • Centre for Holistic Development - For homeless citizens

Wildlife

  • TRAFFIC: TRAFFIC is a leading non-governmental organisation working globally on trade in wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Recent paper called 'SPOTTED' by TRAFFIC India, revealed that of the total of 747 leopard deaths between 2015-2019 in India, 596 were linked to illegal wildlife trade and activities related to poaching. Leopard poaching was highest in Uttarakhand, Maharashtra

Women

  • Pinjra Tod - autonomous collective effort to ensure secure, affordable and not gender-discriminatory accommodation for women students across Delhi.
    • Activists booked under UAPA in relation to communal violence

[In News: Latest]

  • July, 20
    • CAPA estimated that the second quarter beginning July too will be a washout. It reiterated that the market may only be left with 2-3 airlines if there is a delay in recapitalisation for the sector.
    • Antibiotics are extensively misused in the dairy sector and its residues remain largely untested in milk, noted a recently published survey report by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).
  • Aug, 20
    • Leopard poaching highest in Uttarakhand, Maharashtra

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