News: June 20, 2020

Sub: Geography
Topic: India Physical Setiings
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 1/10

Lakes and Rivers in focus


  • Ladakh
    • Pangong Tso lake
  • Maharashtra
    • Lonar lake
      • Lonar lake in Buldhana district had turned pink.
      • CSIR-NEERI and Geological Survey of India will give their findings in 4 weeks, about glass formation  on surface of lake
      • As per study by Pune based institute, the pink coloration is due to Haloarchaea or halophilic archaea bacteria. the bacteria is found in salt saturated water bodies. The coloration is supposed to be temporary


Himalayan rivers

  • Brahmaputra River
    • Originates from Angsi glacier near Mansarovar Lake, and enters India along the eastern side of Namcha Barwa mountains
    • Tributaries : Subansiri, Bhareli, Manas, Sankos, Jaldhaka, Tista on right bank; Dibang, Lohit, Dhansiri, Kolong on left bank
  • Indus River
    • Tributaries
      • Shyok River - Flows through northern Ladakh and enters Gilgit Baltistan. Originates in Siachen Glacier
  • Ganges
    • Tributaries
      • Ghaghra River
        • Tributaries
          • Kali River (Mahakali, Sharda) - originates in the Pithoragarh district in Uttarakhand, and flows along western boundary of Nepal. Dudhwa National Park in Uttar Pradesh lies in its basin

Peninsular rivers

East flowing rivers

  • Godavari
    • Largest river of peninsular India, it rises in Western Ghats near Nasik.
    • Major tributaries from left are Purna, Maner, Penganga, Pranhita (the combined Wardha and Wainganga), Indravati, Tal, and Sabri. Major tributary from right is Manjira
    • The delta is characterized by extensive mangrove swamps, mud-flats, lagoons and barrier splits
  • Krishna
    • Originates in Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar
    • Major tributaries: Bhima, Tungbhadra
      • Tungbhadra:  Tungabhadra River is formed by the confluence of the Tunga River and the Bhadra River at Koodli which flow down the eastern slope of the Western Ghats in Karnataka. It joins Krishna River near Alampur Village in Telangana near Sangameshwara temple and Jogulamba temple
    • Dams - Nagarjuna Sagar dam
    • The delta is characterized by extensive mangrove swamps, mud-flats, lagoons and barrier splits
West flowing rivers
  • Sharavathi - West flowing river, which originates and flows entirely within Karnataka, and it houses Jog Falls
  • Periyar
    • It originates from the Sivagiri peaks of Sundaramala in Tamil Nadu.
    • Dams: Iduki dam,  Mullaperiyar dam
    • Tributaries - Muthirapuzha, Mullayar, Cheruthoni, Edamala, Chalakudy
      • Chalakudy
        • The river has its origin in the Anamalai region of Tamil Nadu. The river hosts Athirappilly hydroelectric project

Other rivers

  • Nag river - The river gives Nagpur city its name, and originates in Lava hills. There is a lobby which places its origin further below at Ambazari dam, so as to carry with industrialization in upper stretch.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Union government is going to take stock of water utilisation from the Krishna and Godavari rivers following Telangana to assess whether there will be surplus water for new projects
  • July, 20
    • Nagpur Bench of the Bombay High Court takes note of pollution in Nag river.
  • Aug, 20
    • With a considerable increase in the water level in the Mullaperiyar dam following heavy rain, Kerala has asked Tamil Nadu to initiate urgent measures to keep the storage in the dam at a manageable level
    • Heavy rainfall in Krishna, Bhima, Tungabhadra basin areas of Maharashtra is expected to increase inflows to various dams and barrages in the neighbouring state.

Sub: Politics
Topic: Constitution
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 2/10

Rajya Sabha

  • The Fourth Schedule of the Constitution deals with the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha to the states and union territories
  • Rajya Sabha is a permanent House and can not be dissolved


  • The representatives of states in the Rajya Sabha, are elected by the elected members of state legislative assemblies, based on proportional representation with single transferable vote.
  • The representatives of union territory in the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected by members of an electoral college specially constituted for the purpose.
  • The member needs to be at least 30 years of age
  • Representation of the People Act (1951) provides for term of office of a member of the Rajya Sabha to be six years. Elections are held every two years with one third members retiring.
  • Candidates fielded by political parties have to be proposed by at least 10 members of the Assembly or 10% of the party’s strength in the House, whichever is less. For independents, there should be 10 proposers, all of whom should be members of the Assembly.
  • Polling is held only if the number of candidates exceeds the number of vacancies. Polling is done by the system of "open ballot", where members of state legislative assemblies show their marked ballot to the party agents. There is no option of NOTA
  • In addition to provisions in Constitution, Representation of the People Act (1951) provides for
    • candidate contesting an election to the Rajya Sabha from a particular state to be an elector in that particular state
    • candidate to be a member of a scheduled caste or scheduled tribe in any state or union territory, if he wants to contest a seat reserved for them.


  • President has the final authority over disqualification of member.
  • If a disqualified person is elected to the Parliament, the Constitution lays down no procedure to declare the election void. This matter is dealt by the Representation of the People Act (1951), which enables the high court to declare an election void if a disqualified candidate is elected. The aggrieved party can appeal to the Supreme Court against the order of the high court in this regard.
  • He should not hold any office of profit in state (except that of a minister or any other office exempted by Parliament).
  • In addition to provisions in Constitution, Representation of the People Act (1951) provides for
    • He must not have been found guilty of certain election offences or corrupt practices in the elections.
    • He must not have been convicted for any offence resulting in imprisonment for two or more years
    • He must not be a director or managing agent nor hold an office of profit in a corporation in which the government has at least 25 per cent share
    • He must not have been dismissed from government service for corruption or disloyalty to the State.
  • Disqualification on Ground of Defection: The Constitution also lays down that a person shall be disqualified from being a member of Parliament if he is so disqualified on the ground of defection under the provisions of the Tenth Schedule. A member incurs disqualification under the defection law:
    • if he voluntary gives up the membership of the political party on whose ticket he is elected to the House
    • if he votes or abstains from voting in the House contrary to any direction given by his political party
    • if any independently elected member joins any political party
    • if any nominated member joins any political party after the expiry of six months


  • Double Membership: A person cannot be a member of both Houses of Parliament at the same time. Thus, the Representation of People Act (1951) provides for the following:
    • If a person is elected to both the Houses of Parliament, he must intimate within 10 days in which House he desires to serve. In default of such intimation, his seat in the Rajya Sabha becomes vacant. 
    • If a sitting member of one House is also elected to the other House, his seat in the first House becomes vacant.
    • If a person is elected to two seats in a House, he should exercise his option for one. Otherwise, both seats become vacant. 
    • A person cannot be a member of both the Parliament and the state legislature at the same time. If a person is so elected, his seat in Parliament becomes vacant if he does not resign his seat in the state legislature within 14 days
  • Resignation - A member may resign his seat by writing to the Chairman of Rajya Sabha. However, the Chairman/Speaker may not accept the resignation if he is satisfied that it is not voluntary or genuine.
  • Absence - A House can declare the seat of a member vacant if he is absent from all its meetings for a period of sixty days without its permission.
  • A member has to vacate his seat in the Parliament:
    • If his election is declared void by the court
    • If he is expelled by the House
    • If he is elected to the office of President or Vice-President; and
    • If he is appointed to the office of governor of a state.

[In news]

  • June, 20
    • Rajya Sabha elections

Sub: Politics
Topic: Judiciary
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 3/10

Cases And Committees In Focus


  • Justice Verma Committee, 2013
    • On amendments to the Criminal Law so as to provide for quicker trial and enhanced punishment for criminals accused of committing sexual assault against women.  
    • Recommended insertion of Section 53A in the Indian Evidence Act wherein previous good character should become irrelevant in criminal proceedings.
  • V.S. Malimath Committee, 2003: reforms in the criminal justice system 
    • The panel recommended a modification to Article 20 (3) of the Constitution that protects the accused from being compelled to be a witness against himself/herself. The Committee suggested that the court be given freedom to question the accused to elicit information and draw an adverse inference against the accused in case the latter refuses to answer
    • The panel recommends replacing "proof beyond reasonable doubt" with "if the court is convinced that it is true" as basis to convict accused in criminal cases
    • Recommended setting up of a National Security Commission and State Security Commissions
  • M.R. Shamshad committee - Delhi riots
  • Kris Gopalakrishnan committee - The committee was formed by ministry of electronics and information technology (MeitY) , to formulate a framework for Non-personal data (NPD)


  • Constitution
    • Kihoto Hollohan versus Zachillu, 1992: Judicial review for member disqualification is only available after final decision by the Speaker/Chairman. Till then he acts as a tribunal.
  • Information Technology
    • Anuradha Bhasin vs Union of India, 2020  - Internet ban in Jammu and Kashmir under the pretext of Section 144
  • Police Reforms
    • Prakash Singh v. Union of India (2006) - Supreme Court pushing for legislation for governing police forces. Grievance redressal was a key component
    • Joginder Kumar v. State of UP, and D.K. Basu v. State of West Bengal - Guidelines for right to life and right to know. To ensure that an accused person is made aware of all critical information regarding her arrest and also convey this to friends and family immediately in the event of being taken in custody.
  • Sexual assault 
    • Shri Bodhisattwa Gautam v. Shubra Chakraborty - suggest that a large number of women still fail to report rapes to the police 
    • Mahmood Farooqui v. NCT of Delhi (2017) - On consent in relationship
  • Torture
    • Raghbir Singh v. State of Haryana (1980), Francis Coralie Mullin v. Union Territory of Delhi (1981)
    • Sheela Barse v. State of Maharashtra (1987) : Court condemned cruelty and torture as violative of Article 21
    • DK Basu v. State of West Bengal: Prisoners and detainees are not deprived of their Fundamental Rights under Article 21 barring restrictions permitted by law
    • Nilabati Behera v. State of Orissa: Supreme Court made sure that the state could no longer escape liability in public law and had to be compelled to pay compensation

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Madhya Pradesh Council of Ministers exceeding prescribed limit
    • Controversy over Justice Krishna Dixit's “misogynistic” remarks
    • "Committee for the Reform of Criminal Laws" created by Ministry of Home Affairs. Its consultation exercise would start on July 4 and go on for the next three months.
    • Non-personal data committee invites public comments on framework
    • Kihoto Hollohan versus Zachillu, 1992 case in judicial review powers of high court

Sub: Politics
Topic: Constitution
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 4/10

Constitution Schedules in focus

Sixth Schedule - Articles 244 and 275

Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. Based on recommendation of Bardoloi sub committee.

Autonomous districts and autonomous regions

  • Autonomous districts and autonomous regions
    • Governor can include, exclude, create boundaries of autonomous districts. He can appoint a commission for examining their administration and accordingly dissolve them too on its recommendation.
    • If there are different Scheduled Tribes in an autonomous district, the Governor can divide the area into autonomous regions.
  • Constitution of District Councils and Regional Councils:
    • There shall be a District Council for each autonomous district consisting of not more than thirty members; of whom not more than four persons shall be nominated by the Governor and the rest shall be elected on the basis of adult suffrage.
    • There shall be a separate Regional Council for each area constituted an autonomous region. Each District Council and each Regional Council shall bear the name respectively of "the District Council of (name of district)" and "the Regional Council of (name of region)"
    • In an autonomous district with Regional Councils, the District Council shall have only such powers with respect to the areas under the authority of the Regional Council as may be delegated to it by the Regional Council, in addition to the powers conferred on it by this Schedule with respect to such areas.
    • The elected members of the District Council shall hold office for a term of five years from the date appointed for the first meeting after the general elections to the Council
      • Can be extended to one year in case of emergency, but not beyond six months after emergency ceases
  • Powers of the District Councils and Regional Councils to make laws:
    • Have rights over land for promoting interests of its inhabitants, except for reserved forests and rights of state government for land occupation for public purposes. They can impose land revenue
    • District Council for an autonomous district can establish and manage primary schools (can prescribe language), dispensaries, markets, transport in the district after approval from Governor.
    • Within their territorial jurisdictions they may constitute village councils or courts for the trial of suits between parties belonging to Scheduled Tribes within such areas. The jurisdiction of high court over these suits and cases is to be specified by the governor.
    • After approval from Governor, can make rules regulating the constitution and enforcement of village councils and courts
    • There shall be a District Fund and a Regional Fund, and Governor to make rules for its management; and CAG to conduct audits of its accounts.
    • The acts of Parliament or the state legislature do not apply to autonomous districts and autonomous regions or apply with specified modifications and exceptions


Tenth Schedule - Articles 102(2) and 191(2)

The 52nd Amendment Act of 1985, also called Anti-defection law' provided for the disqualification of the members of Parliament and the state legislatures on the ground of defection from one political party to another.

Disqualification on ground of defection

 A member of a House belonging to any political party becomes disqualified for being a member of the House:

  • Para 2(1)(a) - if he voluntarily gives up his membership of such political party
    • In the absence of a formal resignation by the member, the giving up of membership can be inferred by his conduct
    • There are supreme court judgements, where members who publicly expressed opposition to their party, or support for another party were deemed to have resigned
  • if he votes or abstains from voting in such House contrary to any direction issued by his political party, and such act has not been condoned by the party within 15 days of voting.
  • An elected member who has been elected as a candidate set up by any political party, shall be disqualified for being a member of the House if he joins any political party after such election.
  • A nominated member of a House becomes disqualified for being a member of the House if he joins any political party after the expiry of six months from the date on which he takes his seat in the House.


  • If a member goes out of his party as a result of a merger of the party with another party. A merger takes place when two-thirds of the members of the party have agreed to such merger.
  • If a member, after being elected as the presiding officer of the House, voluntarily gives up the membership of his party or rejoins it after he ceases to hold that office.
  • 91st Amendment Act of 2003, removed the provision, that gave exemption from disqualification in case of split by one-third members.


  • Any question arising for disqualification of member is referred for the decision of the Chairman / Speaker and his decision is final.
    • Any question arising for disqualification of speaker/chairman himself lies with the member elected by House
  • The Presiding Officer can take up a defection case only when he receives a complaint from a member of the House. The law does not specify a time-period for the Presiding Officer to decide on a disqualification plea
  • Before taking the final decision, Presiding Officer must give the member a chance to submit his explanation. Presiding Officer may also refer the matter to the committee of privileges for inquiry.
  • Judicial review: Appeals against final decision of Presiding Officer can be made in the High Court and Supreme Court. A challenge can be made if there is a threat of disqualification before final decision of speaker.
    • Supreme Court, after Kihoto Hollohan v. Zachillhu case (1993), became the final authority over disqualification of member.

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Support withdrawal and defection in Manipur assembly
    • Disqualification of Sachin Pilot and other MLAs
  • Aug, 20
    • Arunachal Pradesh Chief Minister Pema Khandu seeks debate on the demand for two autonomous councils - Mon Autonomous Region (MAR) and Patkai Autonomous Council (PAC)

Sub: International Relations
Topic: International institutions, Agencies and Fora Development
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 5/10

Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA)

Previously known as the Bangkok Agreement, it was signed in 1975

  • Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA) is a initiative under the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP) for trade expansion.
  • It is the oldest Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) between countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
  • Current members states include  Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Mongolia, South Korea, and Sri Lanka. APTA is open to all members of UN-ESCAP.
  • APTA is the only operational trade pact linking India and China. India has refused to rejoin ASEAN-led trade Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) .
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

UN-ESCAP serves as the United Nations’ regional hub promoting cooperation among countries to achieve inclusive and sustainable development.




News: 6/10

Global Legal Bodies And Initatives

International Criminal Court (ICC)

  • Headquartered in Hague, ICC was established in 2002 under the treaty of Rome Statute.
    • India has neither signed nor ratified Rome Statute
  • ICC prosecutes those who are responsible for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity and is the court of last resort which intervenes only if a national authority could not prosecute the ones responsible for the crimes stated above.

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

  • FATF Is an inter-governmental body that works to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system.
  • It was established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7. It meets 3 times a year. FATF is different from OECD, however FATF Secretariat is housed administratively at OECD 
  • FATF Black List / OECD blacklist - is a list of countries that the FATF considers non-cooperative in the global effort to combat money laundering and the financing of terrorism. The list is released as part of FATF's annual report. Currently North Korea and Iran are on list
  • FATF Grey List - Countries on the FATF grey list represent a much higher risk of money laundering and terrorism financing but have formally committed to working with the FATF

Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism (EAG)

  • EAG is is a regional body and an associate member of the FATF since 2010
  • EAG  is a FATF-style regional body (FSRB) for countries of the Eurasian region that have not been part of existing FSRBs, to play an important role in combating the threat of terrorism and increasing the transparency and security of financial systems of the region. The EAG objective is to incorporate these countries into the global system on anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT).
  • The EAG comprises of nine countries: India, Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Belarus.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • USA sanctions on ICC
    • Pakistan to stay in FATF Grey List

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Education
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 7/10

Higher Study Bodies And Surveys


School education is on the State list, and higher education is on the concurrent list

University Grants Commission (UGC)

  • UGC is a statutory body set up in 1956, and is charged with coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of higher education.
  • University Grants Commission provides recognition to universities and disburses funds to them.
  • In 2019 a Bill was proposed to replace UGC but was scrapped later

All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

  • AICTE is a statutory body under the aegis of Department of Higher Education, MHRD.
  • It is a national-level council for technical education responsible for planning and coordination of technical education and management of education system in the country.
  • It accredits graduate and post graduate programs at Indian institutions.
  • AICTE acts more as a guidance board

National Council for Teachers Education (NCTE)

  • For planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system throughout the country
  • Statutory body under National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993
  • It lay down guidelines for minimum qualifications and fees charged by recognised institutions
  • Suitable performance appraisal system, norms and mechanism for enforcing accountability on recognised institutions
  • Take all necessary steps to prevent commercialisation of teacher education


  • National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF)
    • Launched in 2015, is a methodology adopted by the MHRD to rank institutions of higher education in India.
    • The parameters give higher weightage to Teaching, Learning and Resources, Research and Professional Practices, Graduation Outcomes, Outreach and Inclusivity; and low weightage to Perception. 

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • NIRF: IIT-M tops India Rankings in 2020
  • July, 20
    • Students in limbo as UGC yet to decide on final year exams
    • UGC to take action if States cancel exams

Sub: Geography
Topic: Environment Disaster Management
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 8/10

Disaster Management

Disaster Management Act, 2005

  • It provides for a three tier structural system to manage disasters with NDMA at the national level, State Disaster Management Authorities headed by Chief Ministers at the State level and District Disaster Management Authorities at district level.
  • The legislation also envisages responsibility on the central government to constitute National Disaster Response Fund and National Disaster Mitigation Fund.
  • Provisions for Imprisonment for a term up to two years or fine, or both for violating any provision of the DM Act.

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)

  • NDMA is the apex statutory body for disaster management in India, established through Disaster Management Act,  2005
  • It is the nodal division in Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) for disaster management, and is chaired by Prime Minister
  • Composition - NDMA may have no more than nine members, and the tenure of the members shall be five years
  • NDMA Funds
    • The financial assistance from SDRF/NDRF is for providing immediate relief and is not compensation for loss/damage to properties /crops 
    • For projects exclusively for the purpose of mitigation, i.e, measures aimed at reducing the risk, impact or effect of a disaster or threatening disaster situation a separate fund called National Disaster Mitigation Fund has to be constituted
    • NDRF and SDRF accounts are audited by CAG every year
    • National Disaster Response Fund
      • NDRF was set up in accordance with Section 46 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005
      • NDRF is constituted to supplement the funds of the State Disaster Response Funds (SDRF) of the states to facilitate immediate relief in case of calamities of a severe nature. 
      • Disaster (s) covered under NDRF: cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood, tsunami, hailstorm, landslide, avalanche, cloud burst, pest attack and cold wave and frost 
      • Department of Agriculture and Cooperation under Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) monitors relief activities for calamities associated with drought, hailstorms, pest attacks and cold wave frost; while rest of the natural calamities are monitored by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). 
      • In the event of a disaster of 'a severe nature', in which the funds needed for relief operations exceeded the balances in the SDRF account, additional assistance would be provided from the NDRF 
      • National Executive Committee (NEC) of the National Disaster Management Authority takes decisions on the expenses from National Disaster Response Fund.
      • Allows individual and institutional contributions directly
    • State Disaster Response Fund:
      • SDRF was set up in accordance with Section 48 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
      • Fourteenth Finance Commission made provisions of funds for SDRF
      • Every state has to constitute State Executive Committee (SEC) as per section 20 of Disaster Management Act. SEC's administrative expenses are borne by state government.
      • Central Government contributes 75% of SDRF allocation for general category States/UTs; and 90% for special category States/UTs (NE States, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir)
      • Disaster (s) covered under SDRF: Cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood, tsunami, hailstorm, landslide, avalanche, cloudburst, pest attack, frost and cold waves.
      • State Government may use up to 10 percent of the funds available under the SDRF for providing immediate relief to the victims of natural disasters that they consider to be ‘disasters’ within the local context in the State


  • IFLOWS-Mumbai - Flood warning system for Mumbai developed by Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES)

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Assam floods
  • July, 20
    • Finance Ministry clears proposal for individual and institutional contributions to NDRF


News: 9/10

Nuclear Energy


International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) serves as the world’s foremost intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. It is also known as Atoms for Peace and Development organisation

  • Established in 1957 as an autonomous international organization within United Nation
  • Under IAES, every non-nuclear-weapon State undertakes the obligation for comprehensive safeguards
  • IAEA General Conference is held annually. The conference elects a President and members of General Committee at the beginning of each annual session.
  • It also serves as a multilateral channel for transferring peaceful applications of nuclear technology
  • IAEA is not a party to the NPT but is entrusted with a key verification role under it. Under the NPT, the IAEA has a specific role as the international safeguards inspectorate.

Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)

  • Signed in 2015, between Iran, P5 nations, Germany and European Union to check Iran's nuclear us by passing UN Resolution 2231
  • IAEA to get access to all of Iran's nuclear facilities

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • IAEA expresses concerns over Iran blocking nuclear activity inspection
  • July, 20
    • Delay in Chabahar port and India US Iran relations.

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 10/10

Employment Schemes In Focus

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan (PM-GKRA), 2020

  • To empower and provide livelihood opportunities in areas/villages witnessing large number of returnee migrant workers affected by the devastating COVID-19
  • This Abhiyaan of 125 days, will work in mission mode, will focus on districts with a large concentration of returnee migrant workers in 6 states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.
  • Public works to be undertaken during this campaign will have a resource envelope of Rs. 50,000 crores.
  • Ministry of Rural Development is the nodal Ministry for this campaign and the campaign will be implemented in close coordination with the State Governments. 
  • Central Nodal Officers of the rank of Joint Secretary and above will be appointed to oversee the effective and timely implementation of various schemes in the identified districts. 

The Urban Learning Internship Program (TULIP)

  • A program for providing internship opportunities to fresh graduates in all Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and Smart Cities across the country
  • Implemented through a partnership between Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) and AICTE.
  • At the State level, TULIP will be supported by the Urban Development departments in providing a clear roadmap for the ULBs/smart cities to adopt TULIP in their respective organisations.
  • Eligibility : Open to Indian Citizens who graduate from an undergraduate program (both AICTE and non-AICTE affiliated) can apply within 18 months from graduating. Indian Students whose results have been declared and have a passing percentage can apply
  • Certificate will be given on course completion on TULIP portal. Stipened to be decided by respective ULB/smart city

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan launched on June 20 to boost employment and livelihood opportunities for migrant workers returning to villages, in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak
    • Karnataka Chief Minister B.S. Yediyurappa asking for PMGKY extension
    • TULIP - Centre launches internship scheme for 25,000 graduates


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