News: June 10, 2020

Sub: Geography
Topic: India Physical Setiings
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 1/8

Lakes and Rivers in focus


  • Ladakh
    • Pangong Tso lake
  • Maharashtra
    • Lonar lake
      • Lonar lake in Buldhana district had turned pink.
      • CSIR-NEERI and Geological Survey of India will give their findings in 4 weeks, about glass formation  on surface of lake
      • As per study by Pune based institute, the pink coloration is due to Haloarchaea or halophilic archaea bacteria. the bacteria is found in salt saturated water bodies. The coloration is supposed to be temporary


Himalayan rivers

  • Brahmaputra River
    • Originates from Angsi glacier near Mansarovar Lake, and enters India along the eastern side of Namcha Barwa mountains
    • Tributaries : Subansiri, Bhareli, Manas, Sankos, Jaldhaka, Tista on right bank; Dibang, Lohit, Dhansiri, Kolong on left bank
  • Indus River
    • Tributaries
      • Shyok River - Flows through northern Ladakh and enters Gilgit Baltistan. Originates in Siachen Glacier
  • Ganges
    • Tributaries
      • Ghaghra River
        • Tributaries
          • Kali River (Mahakali, Sharda) - originates in the Pithoragarh district in Uttarakhand, and flows along western boundary of Nepal. Dudhwa National Park in Uttar Pradesh lies in its basin

Peninsular rivers

East flowing rivers

  • Godavari
    • Largest river of peninsular India, it rises in Western Ghats near Nasik.
    • Major tributaries from left are Purna, Maner, Penganga, Pranhita (the combined Wardha and Wainganga), Indravati, Tal, and Sabri. Major tributary from right is Manjira
    • The delta is characterized by extensive mangrove swamps, mud-flats, lagoons and barrier splits
  • Krishna
    • Originates in Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar
    • Major tributaries: Bhima, Tungbhadra
      • Tungbhadra:  Tungabhadra River is formed by the confluence of the Tunga River and the Bhadra River at Koodli which flow down the eastern slope of the Western Ghats in Karnataka. It joins Krishna River near Alampur Village in Telangana near Sangameshwara temple and Jogulamba temple
    • Dams - Nagarjuna Sagar dam
    • The delta is characterized by extensive mangrove swamps, mud-flats, lagoons and barrier splits
West flowing rivers
  • Sharavathi - West flowing river, which originates and flows entirely within Karnataka, and it houses Jog Falls
  • Periyar
    • It originates from the Sivagiri peaks of Sundaramala in Tamil Nadu.
    • Dams: Iduki dam,  Mullaperiyar dam
    • Tributaries - Muthirapuzha, Mullayar, Cheruthoni, Edamala, Chalakudy
      • Chalakudy
        • The river has its origin in the Anamalai region of Tamil Nadu. The river hosts Athirappilly hydroelectric project

Other rivers

  • Nag river - The river gives Nagpur city its name, and originates in Lava hills. There is a lobby which places its origin further below at Ambazari dam, so as to carry with industrialization in upper stretch.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Union government is going to take stock of water utilisation from the Krishna and Godavari rivers following Telangana to assess whether there will be surplus water for new projects
  • July, 20
    • Nagpur Bench of the Bombay High Court takes note of pollution in Nag river.
  • Aug, 20
    • With a considerable increase in the water level in the Mullaperiyar dam following heavy rain, Kerala has asked Tamil Nadu to initiate urgent measures to keep the storage in the dam at a manageable level
    • Heavy rainfall in Krishna, Bhima, Tungabhadra basin areas of Maharashtra is expected to increase inflows to various dams and barrages in the neighbouring state.

Sub: Politics
Topic: Judiciary
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 2/8

Codes And Articles In Focus


  • States
    • Nagaland
      • Article 371A - Special provision with respect to the state of Nagaland
      • Article 371A (1) (b) - important functions like "transfer and posting of officials" entrusted with the maintenance of law and order of and above the district level will be with the approval of the Governor.
  • Right to Health
    • Right to Health is an integral part of Right to Life as enshrined in Article 21.
    • Article 38 lays down the responsibility of the state to secure social order for the in promotion of the welfare of public health.
    • Article 39 (e) pertains to the protection of health of the workers.
    • Article 41 relates to providing public assistance by the state in special circumstances such as sickness, disability, old age etc.
    • Article 42 protects the health of the infant and the mothers, i.e. in a way, it pertains to maternity benefit.
    • Article 47 imposes a primary duty of the state in improvement of public health, in securing of justice, providing humane conditions of work for the workers, extension of benefits pertaining to sickness, disability, old age and maternity benefits. In addition to this, the state is under an obligation to prohibit the consumption of liquor in the interest of the public good.
    • Article 48A: State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
    • Article 164 (1A) : The total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State
  • Environment
    • Article 48A - State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
    • Article 51 A - Every citizen shall protect the environment.
  • Governor
    • Article 159 :  Oath or affirmation by Governor 
    • Article 174 :  Empowers Governor to decide on session sittings of Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council, but no more than six months should pass between two sittings. It also allows Governor to Prorogue either House and dissolve Legislative Assembly.
    • Article 175 : Governor may address the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council, and can require attendance of its members. Governor may also send message (pending Bills, functioning of House, order, etc) to either House, and the respective House will have to consider the said message


Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC)  codes

  • Section 144
    • Power to issue order in urgent cases of nuisance of apprehended danger.
    • It authorizes the Executive Magistrate of any state or territory to issue an order to prohibit the assembly of four or more people in an area. According to the law, every member of such 'unlawful assembly' can be booked for engaging in rioting.
    • Also referred as 'gag order'

Indian Penal Code (IPC) codes

  • Section 188:  Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant. It is sufficient that he knows of the order which he disobeys. It can lead to imprisonment of 6 months and/or a fine of Rs 10000
  • Section 295: Damage to a place of worship or an object held sacred, punishable with imprisonment which may extend to two years, or fine, or both.
  • Section 300 and 302: Mob Lynching - Lynching incidents can be dealt with under Section 300 and 302 of IPC. IPC does not specifically describes lynching
  • Section 330 and 331: causing hurt or grievous hurt to extort confession 
  • Section 383: Extortion
  • Section 497 and 498: Adultry
  • Section 498A: Domestic violence
  • Section 506: Criminal Intimidation. non bailable remand

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Madhya Pradesh Council of Ministers exceeding prescribed limit
    • Section 188: Lockdown curbing, in Uttar Pradesh alone, as of 29th April, 2020, FIRs have been registered against 33094 people under Section 188 of IPC during the period of lockdown.
  • July, 20
    • Governor of West Bengal cites Article 159 of deteriorating condition of state
    • 10 yr old dalit girl booked for sacrilege in Punjab
    • Rajasthan Governor allows holding of Assembly session
  • Aug, 20
    • Section 188 - Cases of hospitals and ambulances overcharging public during pandemic

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 3/8

Employment Schemes In Focus

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan (PM-GKRA), 2020

  • To empower and provide livelihood opportunities in areas/villages witnessing large number of returnee migrant workers affected by the devastating COVID-19
  • This Abhiyaan of 125 days, will work in mission mode, will focus on districts with a large concentration of returnee migrant workers in 6 states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha.
  • Public works to be undertaken during this campaign will have a resource envelope of Rs. 50,000 crores.
  • Ministry of Rural Development is the nodal Ministry for this campaign and the campaign will be implemented in close coordination with the State Governments. 
  • Central Nodal Officers of the rank of Joint Secretary and above will be appointed to oversee the effective and timely implementation of various schemes in the identified districts. 

The Urban Learning Internship Program (TULIP)

  • A program for providing internship opportunities to fresh graduates in all Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and Smart Cities across the country
  • Implemented through a partnership between Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) and AICTE.
  • At the State level, TULIP will be supported by the Urban Development departments in providing a clear roadmap for the ULBs/smart cities to adopt TULIP in their respective organisations.
  • Eligibility : Open to Indian Citizens who graduate from an undergraduate program (both AICTE and non-AICTE affiliated) can apply within 18 months from graduating. Indian Students whose results have been declared and have a passing percentage can apply
  • Certificate will be given on course completion on TULIP portal. Stipened to be decided by respective ULB/smart city

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan launched on June 20 to boost employment and livelihood opportunities for migrant workers returning to villages, in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak
    • Karnataka Chief Minister B.S. Yediyurappa asking for PMGKY extension
    • TULIP - Centre launches internship scheme for 25,000 graduates

Sub: Geography
Topic: Environment Ecosystem Vegetation and Wildlife
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 4/8

Reserves in focus

National Park

  • Assam
    • Kaziranga National Park
  • Kerala
    • Mukkuruthi National Park 
    • Silent Valley National Park
  • Rajasthan
    • Ranthambhore National Park
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Nagarahole National Park
  • Uttar Pradesh
    • Dudhwa National Park 

Elephant Reserves

  •  Assam
    • Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve

Tiger Reserves

Of the 3,980 tigers left in the world, India, with 2,226, accounts for 75%.

  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve - largest tiger reserve in India 
  •  Assam
    • Orang National Park
  • Maharashtra
    • Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve
  • Rajasthan 
    • Sariska Tiger Reserve 
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Nagarahole Tiger Reserve
  • Telangana
    • Amarabad Tiger Reserve 
  • Uttarakhand
    • Rajaji Tiger Reserve

Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Assam
    • Dehing Patkai wildlife sanctuary : To be upgraded into national park
    • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary 
  • Karnataka
    • Sharavathi Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kerala
    • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary
      • borders the Mukkuruthi National Park in the south and the Silent Valley National Park buffer zone in the northeast.
      • Sanctuary comprise the new Amarambalam reserve forest and Vadakkekotta vested forest
      • However, the Manjeri colony of the primitive Cholanaikar tribes has been exempted from the sanctuary. 
  • Global
    • Bhutan
      • Sakteng wildlife sanctuary

[In News: Latest]

  • June, 20
    • Floods
    • Tiger reserves in news
  • July, 20
    • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary - inauguration of 18th wildlife sanctuary in state.
    • Sakteng wildlife sanctuary - China objecting to UNDP's Global Environment Facility (GEF) funding for park, citing boundary dispute
    • Green-lighting projects during pandemic

Sub: Politics
Topic: Judiciary
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 5/8

Supreme Court

Attorney General of India

  • Article 76 : Attorney General of India
    • President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney General for India. In other words, he should have been a high court judge for five years or an high court advocate for 10 years
    • In the performance of his duties the Attorney General shall have right of audience in all courts in the territory of India
    • The Attorney General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall receive such remuneration as the President may determine 
  • Duties - Attorney General is required to appear on behalf of government
    • in all the cases in Supreme Court in which the Government of India is concerned.
    • in any reference made by the president to the Supreme Court under Article 143 of the constitution.
    • in any case in a high court in which the Government of India is concerned, if Government of India requires so.
  • Rights
    • He has right of audience in all courts in the territory of India.
    • He can be part of parliamentary committees to which he is a member.
    • He has the right to speak or to take part in the proceedings of both the Houses of Parliament and their joint sittings [Article 88], but without a right to vote. He enjoys all privileges and immunities that are available to member of parliament
  • Attorney General can not defend accused persons in criminal prosecutions without the permission from government

Solicitor General of India

  • Attorney General has two law officers Solicitor General of India (SG) and Additional Solicitor General of India (ASG). Law officers have a tenure of 3 years, and can be terminated with a 3 months notice by either side
  • They are statutory posts and not constitutional. Appointments Committee of the Cabinet(ACC) recommends the appointment and president officially appoints the Solicitor General


Contempt of Court Act, 1971

Contempt refers to the offence of showing disrespect to the dignity or authority of a court. The Act was based on the recommendations of Sanyal committee

  • The Act divides contempt into civil and criminal contempt.
    • Civil contempt refers to the wilful disobedience of an order of any court.
    • Criminal contempt includes any act or publication which: (i) ‘scandalises’ the court, or (ii) prejudices any judicial proceeding, or (iii) interferes with the administration of justice in any other manner.
      • ‘Scandalising the Court’ broadly refers to statements or publications which have the effect of undermining public confidence in the judiciary. 
  • Fair and accurate reporting of judicial proceedings will not amount to contempt of court. Nor is any fair criticism on the merits of a judicial order after a case is heard and disposed of.
  • The punishment for contempt of court is simple imprisonment for a term up to six months and/or a fine of up to ₹. 2,000.


  • Article 129: The Supreme Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself
  • Article 142:  The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it
    • Article 142(2): Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, Supreme Court shall have power to make any order for the purpose of securing the attendance of any person, the discovery or production of any documents, or the investigation or punishment of any contempt of itself

Judgements in focus

  • February 2020 Supreme Court judgment on criminalisation in politics 
    • Political parties to publish the entire criminal history of their candidates for Assembly and Lok Sabha elections along with the reasons that goaded them to field suspected criminals over decent people.
    • Information should be published within 48 hours of selection in a local as well as a national newspaper as well as the parties’ social media handles

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Solicitor General Tushar Mehta on PIL about migrants
  • Aug, 20
    • Plea in SC against contempt law by Prashant Bhushan
    • Article 142 for implementation of Ayodhya verdict

Sub: Politics
Topic: Constitution Constitutional and Statutory bodies
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 6/8

Human Rights

Human Rights Commission

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) 

  • Established in 1993, NHRC is a statutory body created under Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993.
  • Composition
    • The commission is a multi-member body consisting of a chairman and four members appointed by President, based on a six member committee headed by Prime Minister.
    • The chairman should be a retired chief justice of India. The members should be serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court, a serving or retired chief justice of a high court and two persons having knowledge or practical experience with respect to human rights.
    • They can be removed by President on grounds defined in Act, but for grounds on proven misbehavior, President has to refer to Supreme Court.
    • The commission also has four ex-officio members - the chairmen of the National Commission for Minorities, the National Commission for SCs, the National Commission for STs, and the National Commission for Women
  • NHRC has suo moto power to inquire into any case of human rights violation by a public servant. The case can only be taken by Commission within one year from date on which alleged violation occurred.
  • Statistics
    • Since 2017, NHRC has received 5300 complains of custodial death

State Human Rights Commission (SHRC) 

  • Established in 1993, SHRC is a statutory body created under Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993.
  • Composition
    • The commission is a multi-member body consisting of a chairman and two members
    • They are appointed by the Governor on the recommendations of a committee consisting of the chief minister as its head, the speaker of the Legislative Assembly, the state home minister and the leader of the opposition in the Legislative Assembly. In the case of a state having Legislative Council, the chairman of the Council and the leader of the opposition in the Council would also be the members of the committee.
    • The chairperson should be a retired Chief Justice of a High Court and members should be a serving or retired judge of a High Court or a District Judge in the state with a minimum of seven years experience as District Judge
      • A sitting judge of a High Court or a sitting District Judge can be appointed only after consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court of the concerned state.
    • They hold office for a term of five years or until they attain the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier. After their tenure, the chairperson and members are not eligible for further employment under a state government or the Central government.
    • They can be removed by President (not Governor) on grounds defined in Act, but for grounds on proven misbehavior, President has to refer to Supreme Court.
    • Their remuneration is determined by state governments
  • Inquiry
    • A State Human Rights Commission can inquire into violation of human rights only in respect of subjects mentioned in the State List and the Concurrent List of the Seventh Schedule
    • State Human Rights Commission does not inquire into cases already being inquired by National Human Rights Commission or any other Statutory Commission
    • The Commission is vested with the power to regulate its own procedure. It has all the powers of a civil court and its proceedings have a judicial character. It may call for information or report from the state government
    • SHRC has suo moto power to inquire into any case of human rights violation by a public servant. The case can only be taken by Commission within one year from date on which alleged violation occurred.
    • Functions of SHRC are mainly recommendatory in nature. It has no power to punish the violators of human rights, nor to award any relief including monetary relief to the victim. Further its recommendations are non binding on State.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • NHRC issued notice to IRDA over high premiums for medical policies for healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu SHRC looking into alleged thrashing in custody.
  • July, 20
    • Custodial death - Law requires prosecution to prove that the police caused the death.

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 7/8

Bonded Labour

Bonded Labour System Abolition Act of 1976

  • The Act provides for the abolition of bonded labour system with a view to preventing the economic and physical exploitation of the weaker sections of the people
  • The Act clearly defines a bonded labour.
  • An aggrieved person can approach District Magistrate who is chairman of Vigilance Committee constitute under the Act and has been entrusted with certain duties and responsibilities for implementing the provisions of the Act
  • Matter can also be brought to notice of the Sub Divisional Magistrate of the area or any other person who is a of the Vigilance Committee of District or Sub-division.
  • Upto 3 years of imprisonment, and fine for offenders

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Supreme Court asks Bihar to not ignore bonded labour in ongoing pandemic

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Poverty and Employment
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 8/8

Employment Security

Employee Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO)

  • EPFO provides Universal Social Security Coverage on a mandatory basis by way of Provident Fund, Pension and Life Insurance for all workers of the country.
  • It is a statutory body established by the Employees' Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952
  • Employee Provident Fund (EPF) - EPF, a retirement benefit scheme, is looked after and maintained by the Employees Provident Fund Organisation of India (EPFO).
    • Any registered company which has more than 20 employees has to get registered with the EPFO. 
    • EPF is available for all salaried employees (mandatory for those earning less than 15,000).
    • Under the EPF scheme, both the employee and the employer make an equal contribution towards the scheme; and the employee gets this amount on retirement with interest.
    • Both employee and employer make 12% contribution, however, 3.67% of employer's contribution is diverted to Employee’s Pension Scheme (EPS) account

National Pension System (NPS)

  • NPS is a pension cum investment scheme launched by Government of India to provide old age security . NPS is a voluntary contribution scheme that is market-linked and managed by professional fund managers.
  • Regulated by Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).
  • National Pension System Trust (NPST) established by PFRDA is the registered owner of all assets under NPS.
  • NPS allows individuals to make systematic investments via either of the following two accounts
    • Tier-I account:
      • Subscriber is issued a PRAN (Permanent Retirement Account Number).
      • Allows withdrawal of 25% of the accumulated corpus after 3 years for specific purposes
      • It falls under the E-E-T (Exempt-Exempt-Tax) regime, in which the contributions and gains made are exempt from tax, but the entire corpus on withdrawal is liable to tax, rather than just the gains made.
    • Tier-II accounts
      • Tier 2 is a voluntary account with flexible withdrawal and exit regulations. A Tier 2 account, can be opened only if you have an existing Tier 1 account and a PRAN number.
      • The minimum deposit one needs to make for a Tier II account is Rs. 250.
      • The contributions don’t carry any tax exemptions and withdrawal is liable to tax

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • PM-GKP, 24% contribution to EPFO for 3 months for those earning less than 15000
  • July, 20
    • NPS sees 30% increase in subscribers during pandemic


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