News: June 07, 2020

Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Agencies and Bodies
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 1/5

National Survey Organisations in focus

Geological Survey of India (GSI)

  • The main functions of GSI relate to creation and updation of national geoscientific information and mineral resource assessment
  • GSI is a survey organization attached to the office to the Ministry of Mines. 

National Statistical Office (NSO)

  • NSO was formed in 2019 under Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), from merger of National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) and Central Statistics Office (CSO) by
  • National Statistical Office (NSO) headed by a Director General is responsible for conduct of large scale sample surveys in diverse fields on All India basis.
  • First Advance Estimates of National Income, 2019-20
    • Released in January 20, the estimate is based on Benchmark-Indicator method from industrial production, financial performance of companies, freight and cargo handling, crop production.
    • Real GDP or GDP at Constant Prices (2011-12)  to grow at 5%
    • Real GVA at Basic Prices is estimated to increase by 4.9%
      • GVA is the value of output minus the value of intermediate consumption, and is a measure of the contribution to GDP made by an entity. In simple terms  it gives the rupee value of goods and services produced in the economy after deducting the cost of inputs and raw materials

Central Statistics Office (CSO)

  • Central Statistics Office coordinates the statistical activities in the country and evolves statistical standards. It is headed by a Director General assisted by 5 Additional Director Generals.
  • Prepares quarterly estimates of GDP at current and constant prices, estimates of State Domestic Product (SDP), Input-Output Transaction Tables, maintains National Data Bank (NDB) on socio-religious categories, monitors Millennium Development Goals, and publishes National Accounts Statistics
  • Its Economic Statistics Division (ESD) compiles All India Index of Industrial Production(IIP), and develops classifications like - National Industrial Classification (NIC) and National Product Classification (NPC)
  • Its Coordination and Publications Division (CAP) organizes Conference of Central and State Statistical Organizations (COCSSO), Annual Action Plan, Outcome Budget and Annual Plan of the Ministry. The Division is also responsible for implementation of Capacity Development Scheme and Support for Statistical Strengthening (SSS) , a Central Sector Scheme aimed at improving the Statistical Capacity and Infrastructure of the State Statistical System

Index For Industrial Production (IIP)

  • IIP measures the quantum of changes in the industrial production in an economy and captures the general level of industrial activity in the country. It is a composite indicator expressed in terms of an index number which measures the short term changes in the volume of production of a basket of industrial products during a given period with respect to the base period.  The base year is always given a value of 100. The current base year for the IIP series in India is 2011-12. So, if the current IIP reads as 116 it means that there has been 16% growth compared to the base year. 
  • IIP is a short term indicator of industrial growth till the results from Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) and National Accounts Statistics (NAS) are available
  • Index of Industrial Production is compiled and published every month by Central Statistics Office (CSO), with a time lag of six weeks from the reference month
  • Categorization of IIP
    • Sectoral classification: Industrial production for the purpose of IIP is divided into three sectors, i.e, Mining, Manufacturing and Electricity, with relative weights of 75.5%, 14.2% and 10.3% respectively. 
    • Use-based classification: In addition to the industry wise indices/growth rates, the users also require the indices in respect of different use-based categories, i.e., basic goods (45.68%), capital goods (8.83%), intermediate goods (15.68), and consumer durables and non durables (29.81%).

Private Survey Bodies

  • Inferential Survey Statistics and Research Foundation[ISSRF]
    • a research group formed by retired officials from the statistical and economic services.
  • Projex Survey
    • By Projects Today
    • Tamil Nadu, followed by Maharashtra, emerged as the top investment destination in the first quarter of 2020 financial year

[In news]

  • June, 20
    • GSI along with CSIR-NEERI are finding the causes behin Lonar lake coloration
    • ISSRF survey - Although almost all of Odisha’s poor senior citizens received the four-month advance old-age pension promised by the State as COVID-19 relief, only half of them got free foodgrains,
  • Aug, 20
    • Industrial Activity Continued To Contract In May But At A Slower Pace

Sub: Science And Technology
Topic: Biology
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 2/5

Immunology

The immune system is made up of special organs, cells and chemicals that fight infection (microbes). Primary parts of the immune system include the bone marrow and thymus. All of body’s blood cells (including B-lymphocyte and T-lymphocyte, or B cells and T cells) originate in bone marrow. B cells stay in bone marrow and become plasma cells that recognises antigens and produces antibodies to fight them. T cells leave bone marrow and mature in Thymus gland. Using these memory cells (B cells and T cells), the immune system keeps a record of every microbe it has ever defeated. This means it can recognise and destroy the microbe quickly if it enters the body again.

The two main classes of the immune system are:

  1. Innate immune system
    • The innate immune system is the general first line of defence  against infection that gets activated immediately once a pathogen attacks. The innate immune includes physical barriers like skin, hair, respiratory tract; defense mechanism like secretion, mucous, bile, gastric acid, tears; and general immune response like inflammation, or non-specific cellular response.
    • When infected white blood cells - Phagocytes, Macrophages, Mast cells, and Neutrophils
      • Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that helps heal damaged tissues and resolve infections
  2. Adaptive immune system (acquired immunity)
    • There are two main mechanisms of immunity within the adaptive immune system
      1. Humoral
        • In Humoral immunity B cells, stimulated by 'Helper T cells', will differentiate into plasma B cells that produces immunoglobulin (antibodies) - IgG and IgM against a specific antigen
        • B cells express receptors (BCRs) allow B cells to detect pathogens and release further antibodies to fight the infection.
      2. Cellular
        • Cellular immunity occurs inside infected cells and is mediated by T cells. Helper T cells release cytokines that help activated T cells bind to the infected cells
          • Cytokines: Cytokines are various small regulatory proteins (polypeptides) that regulate the cells of the immune system. Some cytokines act to make disease worse (proinflammatory cytokines), whereas others serve to reduce inflammation and promote healing (anti-inflammatory cytokines).

[In news]

  • Convalescent plasma (transfusion) therapy for COVID-19
  • Cellular immunity
  • A few countries, including the U.K., were toying with the idea of issuing some form of a certificate to people who have been infected with novel corona virus and recovered subsequently, as such people were assumed to be resistant to reinfection. 

Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Agencies and Bodies
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 3/5

Pressure Groups In Focus

Aviation

  • Centre for Aviation (CAPA) : Analyses aviation and travel industry

Environment

  • Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) : Not-for-profit organization in environment protect domain
  • The Energy and Resources (TERI) : Research institute in New Delhi that specializes in the fields of energy, environment and sustainable development
  • South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People (SANDRP) : SANDRP is a network of researchers and experts working on water and environmental issues.
  • TRAFFIC, a leading wildlife trade monitoring network.
    • It recorded a significant increase in poaching in India during the over two month lockdown period.

Health

  • Indian Medical Association - voluntary organization of doctors

Human Rights

  • People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) : formed in India in 1976 by socialist leader Jayaprakash Narayan

Rehabilitation

  • Centre for Holistic Development - For homeless citizens

Wildlife

  • TRAFFIC: TRAFFIC is a leading non-governmental organisation working globally on trade in wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Recent paper called 'SPOTTED' by TRAFFIC India, revealed that of the total of 747 leopard deaths between 2015-2019 in India, 596 were linked to illegal wildlife trade and activities related to poaching. Leopard poaching was highest in Uttarakhand, Maharashtra

Women

  • Pinjra Tod - autonomous collective effort to ensure secure, affordable and not gender-discriminatory accommodation for women students across Delhi.
    • Activists booked under UAPA in relation to communal violence

[In News: Latest]

  • July, 20
    • CAPA estimated that the second quarter beginning July too will be a washout. It reiterated that the market may only be left with 2-3 airlines if there is a delay in recapitalisation for the sector.
    • Antibiotics are extensively misused in the dairy sector and its residues remain largely untested in milk, noted a recently published survey report by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).
  • Aug, 20
    • Leopard poaching highest in Uttarakhand, Maharashtra

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 4/5

National Security Council

National Security Council (NSC)

  • National Security Council is an executive government agency established in 1998, is tasked with advising the Prime Minister's Office on matters of national security and strategic interest.
  • NSC is headed by Prime Minister, with Ministers of Home Affairs, Defence, External Affairs and Finance as members. NSA serves as secretary to the council
  • The three tier structure of the NSC comprises:
    • Strategic Policy Group (SPG)
      • National Security Advisor chairs the meetings of the SPG
      • Cabinet secretary coordinates implementation of the group's decisions by Union Ministries and Departments, and State Governments.
    • National Security Advisory Board (NSAB) - NSAB is a multi-disciplinary body. It undertakes long-term analysis and provides perspectives on issues of national security
    • National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) - NSCS is an executive body under Allocation of Business rules, and serves as secretariat to NSC

National Security Adviser (NSA)

NSA is the principal advisor on national security matters to the prime minister. Bodies headed by NSA:

  • China Study Group (CSG)
    • CSG is an informal group constituted in 1997
    • It comprises the Cabinet Secretary, Defence Secretary, Home Secretary, the Army chief, and the Director of Intelligence Bureau, among others.
  • Defence Planning Committee (DPC)
    • Set up in 2018, its member include all three Service Chiefs, Defence Secretary, Expenditure Secretary, Foreign Secretary
    • Chief of Integrated Defence Staff, who is also the Member Secretary.
  • National Technical Research Organisation
    • It is the technical intelligence gathering agency of India under NSA
    • It is a statutory body under Intelligence Organisations (Restriction of Rights) Act, 1985, and enjoys similar powers as the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW).
    • Provides high quality imagery intelligence (IMINT) and signals intelligence (SIGINT) capabilities

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) to analyse the satellite images shared by foreign researchers on social media
    • China Study Group (CSG), headed by National Security Advisor Ajit Doval, met on Saturday to discuss the prevailing situation along the LAC

Sub: Society
Topic: Human Development Health
Weightage:
Category: Prelims & Mains

 

News: 5/5

Food Bodies And Initiatives

Global Bodies

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  • FAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. 
  • Report
    • Global report on food crises 2020
      • Global Report on Food Crises is prepared by 16 leading global and regional organizations belonging to the Global Network Against Food Crises, and released annually by the Food Security Information Network (FSIN), led by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP), and IFPRI.
      • An estimated 135 million people in 55 countries around the world faced acute levels of hunger in 2019
      • An estimated 75 million stunted children were living in the 55 food-crisis countries 
      • Around 183 million people in 47 countries were classified in Stressed (IPC/CH Phase 2) conditions, at risk of slipping into Crisis or worse 
    • State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020 (SOFI)
      • Number of people affected by hunger in the world continues to increase slowly. This trend started in 2014 and extends to 2019.
      • Much of the recent increase in food insecurity can be attributed to the greater number of conflicts, often exacerbated by climate-related shock.
      • World is not on track to achieve the SDG 2.1 Zero Hunger target by 2030.
  • Initiatives
    • Helping nations with advice and funding to fight locust attacks

Indian Initiatives

National Food Security Act, 2013 (NFSA)

The Act envisaged to provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people, to live a life with dignity.

  • The Act provides for coverage of upto 75% of the rural population and upto 50% of the urban population for receiving subsidized foodgrains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), thus covering about two-thirds of the population
  • The eligible persons will be entitled to receive 5 Kgs of foodgrains per person per month at subsidised prices of Rs. 3/2/1 per Kg for rice/wheat/coarse grains. In case of non-supply of entitled foodgrains or meals, the beneficiaries will receive food security allowance
  • The existing Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) households, which constitute the poorest of the poor, will continue to receive 35 Kgs of foodgrains per household per month.
  • Besides meal to pregnant women and lactating mothers during pregnancy and six months after the child birth, such women will also be entitled to receive maternity benefit of not less than Rs. 6,000.
  • Children upto 14 years of age will be entitled to nutritious meals as per the prescribed nutritional standards.
  • The Act also contains provisions for setting up of grievance redressal mechanism at the District and State levels. 

One Nation One Ration Card (ONOC)

  • Launched by Union Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution 
  • Under ONOC, a beneficiary can receive ration entitlements as under the National Food Security Act from any fair price shop in the country using her/his Aadhaar number and biometric authentication
  • Integrated Management of Public Distribution System (IM-PDS) portal will be used for inter-state portability of ration cards
    • As on Aug 2020, 24 states/UTs had become part of portal
  • Annavitran portal to host the data of distribution of foodgrains through E-PoS devices within a state.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Glibal report on food crisis
  • Aug, 20
    • One Nation One Ration Card facility available in 24 states now.
    • Union Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution Ram Vilas Paswan on Saturday, reviewed the progress of 'One Nation One Ration Card' 

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