News: June 04, 2020

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Defence
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 1/5

Indian Border

Border Area Development Programme (BADP) 

  • Implemented by  Department of Border Management, Ministry of Home Affairs through state governments
  • BADP is a Core Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS). following a funding pattern of 90:10 for north-eastern states and Jammu and Kashmir; 60:40 for remaining border states; and 100% for Ladakh
  • Guidelines of BADP, the geographical areas within which the BADP is implemented; allocation of funds, modalities of execution of Works/projects etc. will be laid down by an Empowered Committee of BADP constituted under the Chairmanship of the Secretary, Department of Border Management, Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Of the total funding of BADP in a financial year, 10% will be for incentivising, 10% for states along Indo-China border. Rest 80% funds will be divided in 40:50 ratio, with 40% going to north-eastern states, and 60% to rest
  • Projects for developing infrastructure in strategically important villages/towns (as identified by Border Guarding Forces) will be given priority. Within this 0-10 km area, census villages, semi-urban and urban areas identified by BGFs as ‘strategic villages/towns’ shall be given highest priority
  • Border Guarding Forces (BGFs) will be co-opted as part of decision making process at all levels

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has decided to spend 10% funds of a Centrally sponsored scheme only on projects in Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Sikkim

Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Policies and Welfare schemes
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 2/5

Northern States Policies And Schemes In Focus


  • Godhan Nyay Yojana: To protect crops from open grazing, prevent straying of animals on roads, procuring cow dung for composting and eco friendly activities


  • Electric Vehicle Policy:
    • To boost the city’s economy, reduce pollution levels and generate employment in the transport sector. It also includes incentives for the purchase of electric vehicles.
    • To seek rapid adoption of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) so that they contribute to 25% of all new vehicle registrations by 2024
    • A State EV Fund’, to be created which will be funded through the air ambience fund, levy of additional taxes, cess on inefficient or polluting vehicles
    • Shall remain valid for a period of three years i.e. till 2023


  • Parivar Pehchan Patra - PPP is an e-governance initiative that will enable the citizens to get the benefit of various Centre and State government schemes at their door-step in a fair and transparent manner. a separate Citizen Resources Information Department (CRID) has been established to give further momentum to the PPP programme.

Jammu and Kashmir

  • Jammu and Kashmir Grant Domicile Certificate (Procedure) Rules
    • Individuals who have resided in J&K for 15 years or have studied for seven years or appeared in examinations for class 10th or 12th can be eligible for the grant of a domicile certificate.
    • The eligibility also extends to West Pakistan refugees registered as migrants under the erstwhile state’s Relief and Rehabilitation Commission.
    • Tehsildar  (Executive Magistrate) can issue domicile certificate in most cases, and Relief and Rehabilitation Commissioner can issue certificattes for migrants. 

Madhya Pradesh

  • Satna-Bansagar Multi-Village Rural Water Supply Scheme: To bring treated water from the Bansagar Dam on the Son river to 1,019 villages in six blocks of the districts


  • Magnetic Maharashtra 2.0 - To draw investment to state
  • BMC-Mpower 1on1 - 24x7 helpline to address mental health concerns of citizens in the wake of the novel coronavirus pandemic
  • Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj Research Training and Human Development Institute (SARTHI) - Non-Profit government company for research, policy advocacy, and training for socio-economic and education development of Maratha and Kunbi community


  • Digital Punjab - To create a single interface for all grievances with government


  • Indira Rasoi Yojana - for providing nutritious food to the poor and needy twice a day at concessional rates

[In News: Latest]

  • July, 20
    • Maharashtra Deputy Chief Minister Ajit Pawar on Thursday announced a financial aid of ₹8 crore to SARTHI
  • Aug, 20
    • Haryana to link welfare schemes through ‘Parivar Pehchan Patra’
    • Delhi government launches Electric Vehicle Policy

Sub: Geography
Topic: Environment Ecosystem Vegetation and Wildlife
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 3/5

Reserves in focus

National Park

  • Assam
    • Kaziranga National Park
  • Kerala
    • Mukkuruthi National Park 
    • Silent Valley National Park
  • Rajasthan
    • Ranthambhore National Park
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Nagarahole National Park
  • Uttar Pradesh
    • Dudhwa National Park 

Elephant Reserves

  •  Assam
    • Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve

Tiger Reserves

Of the 3,980 tigers left in the world, India, with 2,226, accounts for 75%.

  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve - largest tiger reserve in India 
  •  Assam
    • Orang National Park
  • Maharashtra
    • Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve
  • Rajasthan 
    • Sariska Tiger Reserve 
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Nagarahole Tiger Reserve
  • Telangana
    • Amarabad Tiger Reserve 
  • Uttarakhand
    • Rajaji Tiger Reserve

Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Assam
    • Dehing Patkai wildlife sanctuary : To be upgraded into national park
    • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary 
  • Karnataka
    • Sharavathi Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kerala
    • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary
      • borders the Mukkuruthi National Park in the south and the Silent Valley National Park buffer zone in the northeast.
      • Sanctuary comprise the new Amarambalam reserve forest and Vadakkekotta vested forest
      • However, the Manjeri colony of the primitive Cholanaikar tribes has been exempted from the sanctuary. 
  • Global
    • Bhutan
      • Sakteng wildlife sanctuary

[In News: Latest]

  • June, 20
    • Floods
    • Tiger reserves in news
  • July, 20
    • Karimpuzha Wildlife Sanctuary - inauguration of 18th wildlife sanctuary in state.
    • Sakteng wildlife sanctuary - China objecting to UNDP's Global Environment Facility (GEF) funding for park, citing boundary dispute
    • Green-lighting projects during pandemic

Sub: Society
Topic: Farming Sector
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 4/5

Schemes facilitating farm produce


Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion & Facilitation) Act, 2017 (APLM Act)

APL Act was introduced to provide single market within a state, private wholesale markets, direct sale by farmers to bulk buyers, and promotion of electronic trading. As agriculture is a state subject, states are free to adopt entire or parts of Model Act

  • The draft law proposes to cap market fees and commission charges payable by a farmer after bringing produce to a wholesale market, and help create a national market with provisions for an inter-state trading licence.
  • Traders will be able to transact in all markets within a state by paying a single fee and sell perishables such as fruits and vegetables outside existing mandis
  • Existing market committees will help develop marketing facilities. All regulatory powers will lie with the office of the director of agricultural marketing in the state, who will also issue licenses to traders and new private players.

Model Contract Farming Act, 2018

Also called, State/UT Agricultural Produce and Livestock Contract Farming and Services (Promotion & Facilitation) Act 2018, the Act aims for integration of farmers with bulk purchasers including exporters, agro- industries etc. for better price realization.

The Act has been prepared by Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare for circulation to the States for its adoption. It is a promotional and facilitative Act and not regulatory in its structure. Key features are:

  • Contracted produce is to be covered under crop / livestock insurance in operation.
  • Contract framing to be outside the ambit of APMC Act.
  • No right, title of interest of the land shall vest in the sponsor.
  • FPO/FPC can be a contracting party if so authorized by the farmers.
  • Contract Farming Facilitation Group (CFFG) for promoting contract farming and services at village / panchayat level 

Essential Commodities Act, 1955

  • For the control of the production, supply and distribution of, and trade and commerce, in certain commodities.
  • Essential commodities are commodities which are defined in the Schedule, and Centre has the authority to add or remove items from Schedule
  • At present, the “Schedule” contains 9 commodities `— drugs; fertilisers, whether inorganic, organic or mixed; foodstuffs, including edible oils; hank yarn made wholly from cotton; petroleum and petroleum products; raw jute and jute textiles; seeds of food-crops and seeds of fruits and vegetables, seeds of cattle fodder, jute seed, cotton seed; face masks; and hand sanitisers.

Essential Commodities (Amendment) Ordinance, 2020

The ordinance has been passed to liberalise the regulatory system. Amendments have been proposed to remove commodities such as cereals, pulses, oilseeds, edible oils, onion and potatoes from the list of regulated essential commodities. This move is expected to attract private investments.

  • The Ordinance provides that the central government may regulate the supply of certain food items including cereals, pulses, potato, onions, edible oilseeds, and oils, only under extraordinary circumstances.  These include: (i) war, (ii) famine, (iii) extraordinary price rise and (iv) natural calamity of grave nature.
  • Any action on imposing stock limits will be based on the price rise. The Ordinance requires that imposition of any stock limit on certain specified items must be based on price rise.  A stock limit may be imposed only if there is: (i) 100% increase in retail price of horticultural produce; and (ii) 50% increase in the retail price of non-perishable agricultural food item
  • The provisions of the Ordinance regarding the regulation of food items and the imposition of stock limits will not apply to any government order relating to the Public Distribution System

Farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Ordinance, 2020

  • It seeks to provide for intra-state and inter-state trade of farmers’ produce outside state APMC. The Ordinance will prevail over state APMC Acts.
  • However, to trade in scheduled farmers’ produce (agricultural produce specified and regulated under state APMC Acts), an entity must be either:
    • a farmer producer organisation or agricultural cooperative society
    • a person having PAN card or any other document notified by the central government.
  • A person in contravention will be subject to a penalty between Rs 25,000 and five lakh rupees.
  • The Ordinance permits the electronic trading of farmers’ produce in the specified trade area. The following entities may establish and operate such platforms:
    • companies, partnership firms, or registered societies, having permanent account number under the Income Tax Act or any other document notified by the central government, and
    • farmer producer organisation or agricultural cooperative society. 
  • A person transacting with a farmer will be required to make payments to the farmer on the same day, or within three working days in certain conditions, for any transaction of scheduled farmers’ produce.
  • The Ordinance prohibits state governments from levying any market fee, cess or levy on farmers, traders, and electronic trading platforms for any trade under the Ordinance. 
  • The parties involved in a trade-related dispute may apply to the Sub-Divisional Magistrate for relief through conciliation.


Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC)

Agriculture is a state subject under Seventh Schedule, so agriculture markets are generally established and regulated by state governments. While intra-state trades fall under the jurisdiction of state governments, inter-state trading comes under Central or Federal Government (including intra-state trading in a few commodities like raw jute, cotton, etc.)

  • APMC is a statutory market committee constituted by a State Governments in respect of trade in certain notified agricultural or horticultural or livestock products  under the Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act issued by that state government
  • Responsibilities
    • It ensures transparency in pricing system and transactions taking place in market area
    • To ensure payment for agricultural produce sold by farmers on the same day
    • To publicize data on arrivals and rates of agricultural produce brought into the market area for sale

electronic National Agriculture Market (e-NAM)

  • e-NAM was launched in 2016 by Ministry of Agriculture
  • National Agriculture Market (eNAM) is a pan-India electronic trading portal which networks the existing APMC mandis to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.


Pradhan Mantri KIsan SAmman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)

Launched in 2018  with an aim to provide income support to all land holding eligible farmer families. The scheme aims to supplement the financial needs of the farmers in procuring various inputs to ensure proper crop health and appropriate yields, commensurate with the anticipated farm income.

  • Under the PM-KISAN scheme, all landholding farmers' families shall be provided the financial benefit of Rs. 6000 per annum per family payable in three equal installments of Rs. 2000 each, every four months.
  • All land holding eligible farmer families, irrespective of the size of land holdings (subject to the prevalent exclusion criteria), can avail benefits under scheme. Following categories of beneficiaries shall not be eligible:
    • All Institutional Land holders
    • Farmer families in which one or more of its members belong to following categories 
      • All Persons who paid Income Tax in last assessment year
      • Former and present holders of constitutional posts 
      • All serving or retired officers and employees of Central/ State Government Ministries 
      • All retired pensioners whose monthly pension is Rs.10,000 or more (excluding Multi Tasking Staff / Class IV/Group D employees) 
      • Professionals like Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Chartered Accountants, and Architects registered with Professional bodies 
  • States to prepare database of eligible beneficiary landholder farmer families in the villages 
  •  It is a Central Sector scheme with 100% funding from Government of India, and funds are directly transferred into the bank accounts

Agriculture Infrastructure Fund 

  • Agriculture Infrastructure Fund is a medium - long term debt financing facility for investment in viable projects for post-harvest management infrastructure and community farming assets through interest subvention and credit guarantee.
  • The duration of the scheme shall be from FY2020 to FY2029 (10 years).
  • Financing facility  scheme: New Central Sector Scheme of financing facility launched under Agriculture Infrastructure Fund of Rs. 1 Lakh Crore. The scheme will support farmers, Primary Agriculture Cooperative Society  (PACS), Farmers Production Organisations (FPO), Agri-entrepreneurs, etc. in building community farming assets and post-harvest agriculture infrastructure. These assets will enable farmers to get greater value for their produce as they will be able to store and sell at higher prices, reduce wastage, and increase processing and value addition.


[In News]

  • June, 20
    • Punjab has sought reconsideration of the three ordinances - for permitting trade in agricultural produce outside the physical boundaries of the set-up of the agricultural market under APMC Act, easing of restrictions under the Essential Commodities Act, and facilitating contract farming.
    • The Union Cabinet has approved an ordinance to amend The Essential Commodities Act, 1955
    • Protest against Farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Ordinance
  • Aug, 20
    • Prime Minister Narendra Modi launches financing facility under Agriculture Infrastructure Fund, and released the sixth instalment of funds under the PM-KISAN scheme

Sub: Geography
Topic: India Physical Setiings Climatology
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 5/5



Cyclones are centres of low pressure surrounded by closed isobars having increasing pressure outward, and closed air circulation from outside towards the central low pressure, in such a way that air blows inward in anticlockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in southern hemishpere. Based on location, cyclones are of two types:

Temperate (Extratropical) cyclone

  • Temperate cyclones are atmospheric disturbances having low pressure in the centre and increasing pressure outward, characterized by converging and rising air cloudiness and precipitation.
  • They are formed in the region between 35°-65° latitudes in both hemisphere, due to convergence of two contrasting air masses - warm, moist and light tropical air mass; and cold, dense polar air mass. The polar fronts created due to these two opposing air masses are responsible for the development of temperate cyclones.

Tropical cyclone

  • Cyclones developed in the regions between tropics of Capricorn and Cancer are called tropical cyclones.
  • They are not regular and uniform. They are more vigorous and move with high velocity over oceans but become weak while moving over land. This is why these cyclones only affect coastal areas.
  • Tropical cyclones are not defined by fronts. They can also stay stationary for several days, and normally from east to west under the influence of trade winds.

[In News]

  • Cyclone Nisarga and Amphan


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