News: June 02, 2020

Sub: International Relations
Topic: Internal Security Operations and Initiatives
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 1/6

Rescue operations in focus

Government Initiatives

  • Vande Bharat Mission (VBM)
    • Under this mission, Ministry of Civil Aviation is coordinating with Ministry of External Affairs and state Governments for bringing Indians back to their homeland
    • Priority will be given to those facing medical emergencies, death in family, pregnant women, elderly, students, deportees, laid off workers and stranded tourists.
    • Passengers need to bear fare and register with Indian embassies. They will also have to take an undertaking to undergo mandatory quarantine for 14 days on arrival in India at their own cost 
    • Air India flights were used in first phase, and private flights were started from fourth phase

India Navy Initiatives

  • Operation Samudra Setu - to repatriate Indian citizens from overseas using INS Jalashwa, Magar, and Airavat

[In news]

  • June, 20
    • INS Jalashwa set sail for colombo
    • INS Airavat set sail from Male in the Maldives


Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Policies and Welfare schemes
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 2/6


National Register of Citizens (NRC)

  • History
    • The National Register of Citizens was first prepared in Assam in 1951.
    • The 1951 NRC is said to have covered each and every person enumerated during the Census of 1951 in Assam.
    • The demands to update the NRC in Assam were first raised by the All Assam Students' Union (AASU) and All Assam Gana Sangram Parishad (AAGSP) in 1975 which ended with signing of  Assam Accord in 1985. As per accord, an Assamese citizen is one who:
      • had entered the state before 1966
      • came between 1966 and March 25, 1971. They would be disenfranchised for 10 years.
      • had their names in 1951 NRC
    • In 1997 Election Commission decided to add 'D' (D voters) against names of voters whose claim to Indian citizenship is doubtful.
    • In 2013, Supreme Court directed Centre to update NRC. A NRC State Coordinator Office was set up and updated NRC was finally released in 2019.
    • Those excluded from list could apply to the foreigners' tribunals.
      • Foreigners' Tribunals are quasi-judicial bodies established as per the Foreigners' Tribunal Order, 1964 and the Foreigners' Act, 1946
  • Assam is the only state that has implemented NRC.

Citizenship Amendment Act, CAA (CAA)

Citizenship Act, 1955 

  • Regulated who may acquire Indian citizenship on grounds of birth, descent, registration, naturalization, and incorporation of territory
  • A natural citizen is one who has stayed in India for at least 11 years

Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019

  • The Act prohibits illegal migrants from acquiring Indian citizenship. Illegal migrants are foreigners who enter India without a valid passport or travel document, or stay beyond the permitted time.  
  • The Act provides that Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan will not be treated as illegal migrants.
    • In order to get this benefit, they must have also been exempted from the Foreigners Act, 1946 and the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 by the central government.
    • The 1920 Act mandates foreigners to carry passport, while the1946 Act regulates the entry and departure of foreigners in India. 
    • The provisions on citizenship for illegal migrants will not apply to the tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, or Tripura, as included in the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution. 
  • The Act reduces period to five years for citizenship by naturalization
  • On acquiring citizenship all legal proceedings against them in respect of their illegal migration or citizenship will be closed.
  • The Act provides that the central government may cancel registration of OCIs on grounds of registration through fraud, showing disaffection to the Constitution, engaging with the enemy during war, necessity in the interest of State, or if within five years of registration the OCI has been sentenced to imprisonment for two years or more.

Illegal migrants can be imprisoned or deported under the Foreigners Act, 1946 and the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920. 

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • India rejects US religious freedom report that takes note of CAA, NRC and Article 370
  • Aug, 20
    • Home Ministry has sought an extension of three months to frame the rules of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019

Sub: Society
Topic: Social Welfare SC, ST and Backward Classes
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 3/6

Tribal upliftment initiatives

Tribal Cooperative Marketing Federation of India [TRIFED]

  • TRIFED administered by Ministry of Tribal Affairs, has its key objectives of market developer and service provider. TRIFED is the only body of the Government of India at the national level engaged in marketing development of tribal products including art & craft items.
  • It was established in August 1987 under the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act.
  •  Initiatives
    • Tribes India - TRIFED owned shops for marketing tribal products
    • Aadi Mahotsav and Tribal Artisan Melas (TAMs) - for showcasing tribal crafts

Van Dhan Yojana

  • Launched in 2018 by Ministry of Tribal Affairs and TRIFED, it seeks to improve tribal incomes through value addition of tribal products.
  • At unit level, aggregation of produce would be done by Self Help Groups having about 30 members each forming Van Dhan Vikas ‘Samuh’.
  •  cluster of ten such SHGs within the same village shall form a 'Van Dhan Vikas Kendra'. 
  • The establishment of "Van Dhan Vikas Kendra" is for providing skill upgradation and capacity building training and setting up of primary processing and value addition facility. 

Tribes in focus

  • Assam
    • Bodo, Misings, Deoris, Rabhas, Sonowal-Kacharis, Tiwas
  • Kerala
    • Cholanaikar 
  • Odisha
    • Santhal, Zuang, Sawara, Karia, Khond,
  • Tripura
    • Bru/Reang 

[In News]

  • July, 20
    • Assamese language made compulsory in all schools, both public and private, including the Kendriya Vidyalayas, from Classes I to X.

Sub: Politics
Topic: Constitution
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 4/6

Cabinet Committees In Focus

Cabinet Committees 

  • They are not mentioned in the Constitution. However, the Rules of Business provide for their establishment.
  • They are set up by the Prime Minister according to requirements of situation. They are of two types - standing and ad hoc
  • They usually include only Cabinet Ministers. However, the non-cabinet Ministers are not debarred from their membership
  • In case the Prime Minister is a member of a committee, he invariably presides over it

Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs

  • Headed by Prime Minister, CCEA directs and coordinates the governmental activities in the economic sphere.
  • Functions
    • Approves MSP pricing based on recommendations from Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP) 
    • Reviews progress of activities related to rural development including those concerning small and marginal farmers
    • Deal with industrial licensing cases involving proposals from the Ministries for the establishment of Joint Sector Undertakings
    • To consider issues relating to disinvestment
  • Recent Initiatives
    • CCEA approved the new definition of MSMEs increasing the investment limit to ₹50 crore and turnover to ₹250 crore for medium enterprises. Likewise, for micro enterprises, the investment limit will be ₹1 crore and turnover ₹5 crore; while for small enterprises, the investment limit will be ₹10 crore and the turnover ₹50 crore.

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • CCEA approves additional investment to ONGC for development of Shwe oil and gas project in Myanmar

Sub: Politics
Topic: Governance Agencies and Bodies
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 5/6

Pressure Groups In Focus


  • Centre for Aviation (CAPA) : Analyses aviation and travel industry


  • Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) : Not-for-profit organization in environment protect domain
  • The Energy and Resources (TERI) : Research institute in New Delhi that specializes in the fields of energy, environment and sustainable development
  • South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People (SANDRP) : SANDRP is a network of researchers and experts working on water and environmental issues.
  • TRAFFIC, a leading wildlife trade monitoring network.
    • It recorded a significant increase in poaching in India during the over two month lockdown period.


  • Indian Medical Association - voluntary organization of doctors

Human Rights

  • People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) : formed in India in 1976 by socialist leader Jayaprakash Narayan


  • Centre for Holistic Development - For homeless citizens


  • TRAFFIC: TRAFFIC is a leading non-governmental organisation working globally on trade in wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Recent paper called 'SPOTTED' by TRAFFIC India, revealed that of the total of 747 leopard deaths between 2015-2019 in India, 596 were linked to illegal wildlife trade and activities related to poaching. Leopard poaching was highest in Uttarakhand, Maharashtra


  • Pinjra Tod - autonomous collective effort to ensure secure, affordable and not gender-discriminatory accommodation for women students across Delhi.
    • Activists booked under UAPA in relation to communal violence

[In News: Latest]

  • July, 20
    • CAPA estimated that the second quarter beginning July too will be a washout. It reiterated that the market may only be left with 2-3 airlines if there is a delay in recapitalisation for the sector.
    • Antibiotics are extensively misused in the dairy sector and its residues remain largely untested in milk, noted a recently published survey report by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).
  • Aug, 20
    • Leopard poaching highest in Uttarakhand, Maharashtra

Sub: Science And Technology
Topic: Research and Technology Information Technology
Category: Prelims & Mains


News: 6/6

IT Acts And Bodies


Information Technology Act, 2000

  • Provisions
    • Allows authentication by electronic signature, giving them legal recognition
    • Provides recognition to foreign Certifying Authorities
    • Dispute resolution by Appellate Tribunal set up under TRAI Act and Finance Act. Appeals can be made in High Court.
  • Controller of Certifying Authorities (CCA)
    • Under Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY)
    • Give license and regulate the working of Certifying Authorities (CAs). The Certifying Authorities (CAs) issue digital signature certificates for electronic authentication of users.
  • Sections
    • 66A : Punishment for sending offensive messages
      • Shreya Singhal v. Union of India, 2015 - Supreme court made Section 66A unconstitutional on grounds of violating the freedom of speech guaranteed under Article 19(1)(a)
    • 66F : Punishment for cyber terrorism.
    • 67 : Punishment for publishing or transmitting obscene material
    • 69 : Power to issue directions for interception or monitoring or decryption of any information
    • 69A : Power to issue directions for blocking for public access of any information
  • Rules
    • Information Technology (Procedure and Safeguards for Blocking of Access of Information by Public) Rules, 2009
      • Gets exercising powers under Section 69A of Information Technology Act, 2000
      • Central Government shall designate an officer not below the rank of Joint Secretary  for the the purpose of issuing direction for blocking access.
      • Every organisation shall designate a Nodal officer and intimate Department of Information Technology under Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.

National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy (NDSAP), 2012

  • To facilitate the access to Government of India owned shareable data and information
  • NDAP applies to all data and information created and archived using public funds provided by Government of India directly or through authorized agencies
  • A state-of-the-art data warehouse and data archive with online analytical processing (OLAP) capabilities, which includes providing, a multi-dimensional and subject oriented view of the database needs to be created.
  • Department of Science & Technology to be the nodal agency, and NIC to create under Open Government Data (OGD) Platform
    • Open Government Data (OGD) : A platform for supporting Open Data initiative of Government of India. It facilitates Government Organizations to publish their datasets in open formats for free public use. OGD is also available as Software as a Service (SaaS).

Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019

  • The Bill seeks to provide for protection of personal data of individuals, and establishes a Data Protection Authority for the same. 
  • Obligations of data fiduciary: A data fiduciary is an entity or individual who decides the means and purpose of processing personal data.
  • The Bill allows processing of data by fiduciaries only if consent is provided by the individual. However, in certain circumstances, personal data can be processed without consent.  These include: (i) if required by the State for providing benefits to the individual, (ii) legal proceedings, (iii) to respond to a medical emergency.
  • The Bill amends the Information Technology Act, 2000 to delete the provisions related to compensation payable by companies for failure to protect personal data


National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI)

  • Umbrella organisation for operating retail payments and settlement systems in India, is an initiative of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) under the provisions of the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007
  • NPCI is a 'Not for Profit' Company registered under the provisions of Section 8 of Companies Act 2013
  • RuPay : an Indigenously developed Payment System 
  • Unified Payments Interface (UPI) :  One-stop bill payment solution for all recurring payments
  • National Automated Clearing House (NACH) : For Banks, Financial Institutions, Corporates and Government a web based solution to facilitate interbank, high volume, electronic transactions which are repetitive and periodic in nature.
  • National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) : Toll collection through FASTag. FASTag are Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) stickers which are affixed on the vehicle windshield

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In)

  • CERT-In is a functional organisation of Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology with the objective of securing Indian cyber space
  • Provides a single point of contact for reporting local problems
  • Provides a 24 x 7 security service. 


  • Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C):
    • Set up in 2018 deal with all types of cybercrimes in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.
    • Functions under Ministry of Home Affairs, and to act as a nodal point in the fight against cybercrime
    • National Cyber Crime Reporting Portal: ,is a citizen-centric initiative that enables citizens to report cybercrimes online through the portal
  • Cyber Prevention, Awareness & Detection Centre (CyPAD) -  CyPAD is the nodal Cyber Crime Unit of Delhi Police.


Group of Governmental Experts (GGE)

The issue of ICT security has been on the UN agenda since 1998, when Russia introduced a draft resolution on the subjec.

  • UN GGE process has been the primary avenue for inter-state dialogue about the international legal regulation of cyberspace
  • The first Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) was established in 2004 but it did not agree on a substantive report
  • Till now there have been 6 GGE meetings with two year terms; India being member in 5 of them.
  • GGE has limited membership based on equitable geographical distribution. Current GGE with 25 members was set in 2019, and will give its report in 2021

Open-ended Working Group (OEWG) for security in ICT

  • Set up in 2019, similar to Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) with membership open to all. The group will report back to Assembly in 2020

[In News]

  • June, 20
    • NPCI denies breach in BHIM app leak
  • July, 20
    • MeitY bans 59 Chinese apps, under Information Technology (Procedure and Safeguards for Blocking of Access of Information by Public) Rules exercising authority under Section 69A of IT Act, to safeguard the "sovereignty and integrity of India"
    • CERT-In received concerns from citizens about privacy in these apps.
    • Environmental website protesting EIA 2020 notification was blocked by Union Environment Ministry under section 66 of IT Act
    • Growing cyber attack in pandemic and call for order
  • Aug, 20
    • CyPAD asked to submit report by high court on plea from a student about misuse of her photographs on social media


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